The results of this study displayed no specific effect of ethnicity on golden proportion and golden standard among the three major Malaysian ethnic groups. Ethnicity has a close association with genetics. It is of no doubt that the ethnicity will affect the tooth proportions greatly between population and ethnics. However, this is an exception if the population has intermarried and not considered “pure” ethnic. Similar traits may be observed in different populations originate from same continent .
Many dental and facial characteristics differ following the geographical location and historical background. Therefore, information regarding tooth norms in a group of population is useful to dentists when restoring teeth . The general Malaysian data can be used in the current study to compare with other populations as the golden proportion and golden standard was not found in all ethnic groups.
Determination of a mathematical or geometrical relation between anterior teeth is important to achieve an esthetic result. It would be helpful if statistically reliable results existed to support existing theories . However, the golden proportion idea can no longer be considered since many articles found that golden proportion didn’t exist.
Rosenstiel and others found that golden proportion was preferred only when viewing very tall teeth and less desirable for normal height or shorter teeth . Ward in 2001 recommended using other ratios, such as 0.70 rather than 0.618 to provide more pleasing appearance .
The current study found poor correlation between teeth dimensions and the golden proportion which is similar to `the findings of (Preston in 1993, Gillen et al. in 1994, Mahshid et al. in 2004, Hasanresioglu et al. in 2005, Fayyad et al. in 2006, Murthi and Ramani in 2008 and Petricevic et al. in 2008) [1, 13, 16–20].
The results for Malaysian population were comparable to the results reported in similar studies of other populations, including Turkish , Iranians [5, 18], Jordanians , Americans , Indians  and Caucasians .
Peixoto et al. reported that the ideal W/H ratio for the central incisor should lie between 75 and 80%. However, the ratio which allows an aesthetically acceptable appearance is in the 65 to 85% range .
According to Hasanresioglu et al., the highest W/H ratio is found in squarer teeth due to shorter height and/or greater width than those of other population which came in agreement with the result of this study .
The results of this study showed W/H ratio higher than other studies (Hasanresioglu et al. in 2005, Wolfart et al. in 2006, Parnia et al. in 2010) although these studies estimated that there is no golden standard in the nature [1, 5, 8]. Recent study conducted in Korea showed similar results for the non-celebrities group . These results might be attributed to differences in racial characteristics.
Power analysis was used to find how much power for this cross-sectional study if we had a specified number of volunteers. The power analysis of 65%. This indicates that there is a 65% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis when it’s false while 80% is generally considered to be good power.
With small sample size, the sample mean tends to be noticeably larger than when the null hypothesis is rejected with the larger sample size. Literatures reveal small difference in means between current study and studies with larger sample sizes.
In the present study, limitation such as minor inaccuracies common to the making of dental cast might have affected the measurements. Time constraints and the exclusion criteria restricted the number of volunteers who could be recruited into the study. Additional research on a greater sample size selected more systematically is needed before extrapolating the results to the Malaysian population.