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Table 3 Constructed socio-economic status (SES) classification (modified Kuppuswamy classification)

From: Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

Level of Education Assigned score
Higher education (level ≥ 12*) 6
College (level 6 to 12*) 5
Primary school (level 1 to 5*) 3
Informal education (i.e. self learning); literate 2
No formal education 1
Occupation  
Professional and skilled 4
Business, household keeper 3
Retired/unemployed 2
Semiskilled and unskilled 1
Household income  
Income covers expenses; no loans needed 4
Income does not cover expenses; no loans needed 3
Income covers expenses; loans needed incidentally 2
Income does not cover expenses; loans needed regularly 1
Socio-economic status scale Summed score
High 9 - 14
Middle 7, 8
Low 3 - 6
  1. *Education levels based on the Vietnamese classification system