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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression of the association between social capital and dental pain

From: Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Model 1a   Model 2b   Model 3c   Model 4d   Model 5e
Explanatory variables  OR (95% CI)  OR (95% CI)  OR (95% CI)  OR (95% CI)  OR (95% CI)
Individual-level variables
 Age group (Reference: Adolescents)
 Adults    0.70 (0.44-1.11) 0.69 (0.43-1.10) 0.79 (0.47-1.33)
 Elderly    0.31 (0.13-0.72) 0.33 (0.14-0.80) 0.81 (0.30-2.15)
 Sex (Reference: Male)
 Female    1.48 (1.00-2.21) 1.34 (0.89-2.02) 1.53 (0.97-2.41)
 Years of schooling (Reference: ≥ 9)
 5-8    1.68 (1.09-2.58) 1.94 (1.25-3.03) 1.45 (0.89-2.37)
 ≤ 4    2.37 (1.35-4.17) 2.70 (1.51-4.81) 1.33 (0.69-2.57)
 Utilization of dental care (Reference: No)
 Yes     3.61 (0.46-28.22) 5.69 (0.49-66.1)
 Last dental visit (Reference: <1 year)
 ≥ 1 year(s)     0.57 (0.38-0.86) 0.46 (0.29-0.72)
 Never     0.55 (0.09-3.37) 0.34 (0.04-2.61)
 Self-perceived oral health (Reference: Excellent/good)  
 Fair/Poor/Very Poor      1.93 (1.18-3.15)
Number of decayed teeth      1.24 (1.16-1.31)
Individual-level social capital
 Bonding/Positive Interactionf   0.87 (0.82-0.90) 0.88 (0.82-0.92) 0.88 (0.82-0.90) 0.88 (0.80-0.91)
 Bridging/Relatives (Reference: ≥ 1)
 No   1.53 (0.84-2.77) 1.50 (0.81-2.75) 1.54 (0.83-2.84) 1.60 (0.81-3.16)
Neighborhood-level social capital (Reference: Low)
 Moderate social capital 0.88 (0.58-1.34) 0.87 (0.57-1.33) 0.85 (0.55-1.30) 0.82 (0.53-1.28) 0.73 (0.42-1.26)
 High social capital 0.62 (0.39-0.96) 0.61 (0.39-0.96) 0.59 (0.37-0.93) 0.57 (0.35-0.90) 0.48 (0.27-0.85)
  1. aModel 1 Unadjusted; bModel 2, Model 1 plus adjustment for Individual-level social capital variables; cModel 3, Model 2 plus adjustment for socio-demographic confounders (age group, sex, schooling); dModel 4, Model 3 plus adjustment for dental services mediators (use of dental services, last dental visit), eModel 5, Model 4 plus adjustment for oral health mediators (self-perceived oral health, number of decayed teeth) fBonding social capital: OR estimates assessed by 10-points increase.