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Table 3 DMFS outcome data at baseline and change in DMFS during the follow up period for each tobacco group, residential-area household purchasing power group and baseline DMFS group, with p-values for the tobacco group comparisons of change in DMFS

From: Tobacco use and caries risk among adolescents – a longitudinal study in Sweden

    DMFS baseline ΔDMFS  
SE group Baseline DMFS group Tobacco group N Mean N Mean p-value*
< 10 0 Ever users 63 0.0 63 0.4 0.33
Never users 774 0.0 774 0.4
1-3 Ever users 49 1.6 49 1.2 0.44
Never users 492 1.7 492 1.0
> 3 Ever users 40 7.6 40 2.8 0.20
Never users 287 6.5 287 1.8
10 – 19.9 0 Ever users 115 0.0 115 0.7 0.05
Never users 875 0.0 875 0.6
1-3 Ever users 129 1.9 129 1.6 0.001
Never users 810 1.8 810 0.9
> 3 Ever users 138 7.3 138 2.5 0.002
Never users 610 6.8 610 1.7
20 – 29.9 0 Ever users 206 0.0 206 0.7 0.001
Never users 1370 0.0 1370 0.5
1-3 Ever users 241 1.9 241 1.8 0.001
Never users 1285 1.8 1285 1.1
> 3 Ever users 308 8.0 308 2.7 0.45
Never users 1171 7.8 1171 2.5
30+ 0 Ever users 45 0.0 45 0.8 0.10
Never users 287 0.0 287 0.6
1-3 Ever users 47 2.0 47 2.3 < 0.001
Never users 293 1.9 293 1.2
> 3 Ever users 70 8.9 70 3.3 0.57
   Never users 312 8.8 312 2.6  
  1. * P-value from the Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test comparing the distributions of DMFS between ever vs. never users.
  2. The overall p-value < 0.0001 (stratified Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test; with additional stratification by sex).