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Table 2 Bivariate analysis between the independent variables: socio-demographic and health indicators, and the outcomes: caries experience (DMFT > 0), OHI-S, TDI and C-OIDP with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)

From: Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan

  Caries experience DMFT/dmft>0 OHI-S -poor OHI TDI - Trauma present C-OIDP impact >0 (Age 11–13)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted Adjusted # Unadjusted Unadjusted Unadjusted
Age      
   Under 12 1 1 1 1 -
   12 and above 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.07 (0.0–0.3) 0.9 (0.4–2.4) 1.8 (0.6–5.5)  
Gender      
   Girls 1 1 1 1 1
   Boys 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 1.1 (0.2–5.4) 0.9 (0.3–2.4) 0.8 (0.2–2.8) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
Residence      
   Non boarders 1 1 1 1 1
   Boarders 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.8 (0.2–3.4) 1.0 (0.4–2.6) 0.5 (0.2–1.5) 1.1 (1.0–1.4)
Mother education      
   Not educated 1 1 1 1 1
   Educated 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.6 (0.2–2.6) 0.6 (0.2–2.0) 2.2 (0.4–10.7) 0.4 (0.0–6.7)
Father education      
   Not educated 1 1 1 1 1
   Educated 0.8 (0.3–2.5) 1.8 (0.3–9.1) 0.8 (0.2–2.6) 0.4 (0.1–1.5) 0.3 (0.0–5.6)
Mother occupation      
   Not working 1 1 1 1 1
   Working 0.5 (0.2–1.1) 0.7 (0.2–2.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 1.1 (0.3–3.6) 0.8 (0.7–1.1)
Father occupation      
   Not working 1 1 1 1 1
   Working 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.8 (0.2–3.3) 2.2 (0.8–6.5) 0.5(0.2–1.8) 0.2 (0.0–3.5)
Oral health      
Caries experience      
   No - - 1 1 1
   Yes    2.0 (0.8–5.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 1.3 (0.9–1.7)
OHI-S      
   Good 1 1 - 1 1
   Poor 2.0 (0.8–5.2) 1.9 (0.6–6.7)   0.6 (0.2–1.7) 1.1 (1.0–1.3)
TDI      
   No trauma 1 1 1 - 1
   Present 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 0.8 (0.2–4.0) 0.6 (0.8–1.7)   1.0 (0.8–1.0)
Visual impairment      
   Complete (CVI) 1 1 1 4.3 (1.1–16.5)* 1.3 (0.4–5.0)
   Partial (PVI) 3.3 (1.4–8.1)* 6.3 (1.7–22.7)* 3.0 (1.1–8.2)* 1 1
  1. Binary logistic regression model for caries, adjusting for all variables illustrated above.
  2. *p < 0.01.
  3. # Logistic regression model: p = 0.001, chi square = 30.4, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.43.