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Table 2 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test results for bivariate relationship between decayed, missing, or filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) (Outcome Measure) and model covariates for Head Start children (N = 115)

From: Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

Variable Median dmfs P-value
  (N = 115)  
Main predictor variable   
Developmental delay   P = .92
 No 1.0
 Yes 0.5
Ascribed factors   
Age (years)   P = .27
 3 0.0
 4 1.0
 5 2.0
Sex   P = .30
 Male 0.0
 Female 2.0
Race   P = .24
 White 0.0
 Non-White 2.0
Proximal factors   
Communication Difficulties   P = .47
 No 0.5
 Yes 1.5
Dental home   P = .30
 No 4.0
 Yes 0.0
Immediate factors   
Caregiver education level   P = .42
 Less than high school 0.0
 High school 2.0
 More than high school 0.0
Caregiver employment   P = .66
 Unemployed 2.0  
 In school or training 2.0  
 Employed 0.0  
Family structure   P = .73
 Single parent 0.5
 Two parents 1.0
Child lives in a smoke-free home   P = .32
 No 1.0
 Yes 0.0
Macro factor   
Lives in a community with fluoridated water   P = .32
 No 1.0
 Yes 0.0