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Table 3 Final multiple variable poisson regression model on dental caries prevalence for Head Start children (N = 115)

From: Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

Variable Parameter estimate (B) Standard error 95% CI Prevalence ratio (PR) 95% CI P-value
Main predictor variable       
Developmental delay       P = .04
 No ref - - - -
 Yes 0.23 0.12 0.01, 0.46 1.26 1.01, 1.58
Ascribed factors       
Age (years)       
 3 ref - - - - -
 4 0.49 0.15 0.20, 0.79 1.64 1.22, 2.20 P = .001
 5 1.44 0.15 1.13, 1.73 4.21 3.08, 5.64 P < .001
Sex       P = .41
 Male ref - - - -
 Female −0.07 0.09 −0.25, 0.10 0.93 0.78, 1.11
Race       P = .42
 White ref - - - -
 Non-White −0.09 0.11 −0.32, 0.13 0.91 0.73, 1.14
Proximal factors       
Communication difficulties       P < .001
 No ref - - - -
 Yes 0.91 0.15 0.62, 1.19 2.47 1.85, 3.30
Dental home       P = .01
 No ref - - - -
 Yes −0.49 0.19 −0.87, -0.11 0.61 0.42, 0.89
Immediate factors       
Caregiver education level       
 Less than high school 0.95 0.17 0.62, 1.13 2.58 1.85, 3.09 P < .001
 High school 0.86 0.13 0.61, 1.11 2.36 1.84, 3.03 P < .001
 More than high school ref - - - - -
Caregiver employment   -     
 Unemployed ref   - - - -
 In school or training 0.32 0.15 0.04, 0.61 1.38 1.04, 1.83 P = .03
 Employed −0.83 0.10 −1.02, -0.64 0.44 0.36, 0.53 P < .001
Family Structure       P = .51
 Single parent ref - - - -
 Two parents 0.06 0.10 −0.13, 0.26 1.07 0.88, 1.29
Child’s lives in a smoke-free home       P = .55
 No ref - - - -
 Yes −0.07 0.12 −0.31, 0.17 0.93 0.73, 1.18
Macro factor       
Lives in a community with fluoridated water       P < .001
 No ref - - - -
 Yes −0.99 0.10 −1.17, -0.80 0.37 0.31, 0.45