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Table 5 Multiple linear regression analysis for Missing Teeth, CPI, Russell’s periodontal index, and Papillary bleeding index

From: Association between diabetes-related factors and clinical periodontal parameters in type-2 diabetes mellitus

Variables Missing teeth CPI Russell’s periodontal index Papillary bleeding index
Parameter estimate* (Standard error), P- value
Gender (ref. female)
Age .185 (.029) < .001    
Smoking (ref. No)   -.375 (.139) .008   
Drinking (ref. No)     
Education level (ref. ≤Middle school)
 High school vs. ≤Middle school     -.415(.142) .004
 College ≤ vs. ≤Middle school   -.478 (.181) .010   -.496(.176) .006
Duration of diabetes illness (ref. ≤5 years)
 6-9 years vs. ≤5 years    .513 (.223) .023  
 >10 years vs. ≤5 years   .461 (.204) .026 1.306(0.353) < .001 .677(.199) < .001
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) .022(.006) < .001    
HbA1c (%)    .121 (.060) .045 .072 (.034) .036
Compliance to self management of diabetes (ref. Not-do-well)     -.339 (.122) .007
Frequency of tooth brush (per day)
 Oral health education (ref. No)   -.313 (.157).048 −1.789 (.270) < .001  
Perceived self-oral health status (ref. Unhealthy)
  R2 = .535, p < .001 R2 = .400, p < .001 R2 = .542, p < .001 R2 = .433, p < .001
  1. *Adjusted for gender, age, smoking, drinking, education level, frequency of tooth brush, oral health education and perceived self-oral health status.