Skip to main content

Table 3 Overview of studies using oral health literacy tools 2007-2013

From: Measuring oral health literacy: a scoping review of existing tools

Authors Year Title Journal Aim Sample n= Setting Tool used
Gong, D., Lee, J., Rozier, G., Pahel, B., Richman, J., Vann, W. 2007 Development and testing of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Dentistry (ToFHLiD) Journal of Public Health Dentistry To evaluate the reliability and validity of the ToFHLiD Parents of paediatric patients 102 Caregivers of paediatric dental patients seeking care in two dental clinics in North Carolina ToFHLiD
Jones, M., Lee, J., Rozier, G. 2007 Oral health literacy among adult patients seeking dental care Journal of the American Dental Association To examine the association of knowledge, dental care visits and oral health status with oral health literacy in dental patients Adult patients 101 Convenience sample of adult patients presenting for treatment at private dental practices in North Carolina REALD-30 and short interview
Lee, J., Rozier, G., Lee, S., Bender, D., Ruiz, R. 2007 Development of a word recognition instrument to test health literacy in dentistry: The REALD-30- A brief communication Journal of Public Health Dentistry To develop and pilot test a dental word recognition instrument Adult patients 200 Ambulatory Care Centre at the University of North Carolina Hospital REALD-30 and interview that included the TOFHLA & REALM & OHIP-14
Richman, K., Lee, J., Rozier, G., Gong, D., Pahel, B., Vann, W. 2007 Evaluation of a word recognition instrument to test health literacy in dentistry: The REALD-99 American Association of Public Health Dentistry To evaluate a dental health literacy word recognition instrument Parents of paediatric patients 102 Parents and caregivers of paediatric dental patients from the UNC-CH School of Dentistry Paediatric Dental Clinics and from Orange County Dental Clinics REALD-99
Jackson, R., Eckert, G. 2008 Health literacy in an adult dental research population: A pilot study American Association of Public Health Dentistry To gather data concerning the level of health literacy in adults who frequently volunteer for clinical research programs Adults enrolled in the Oral Health Research Institute School of Dentistry 100 Oral Health Research Institute of Indiana University School of Dentistry S-ToFHLA
Sabbahi.D., Lawrence, H., Limeback, H., Rootman, I. 2009 Development and evaluation of an oral health literacy instrument for adults Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology To develop and validate an instrument to measure functional oral health literacy of adults Adult patients 100 Convenience sample of patients attending the Faculty of Dentistry clinics at the University of Toronto Oral Health Knowledge test, OHLI, ToHFLA
Atchison, K., Gironda, M., Messadi, D., Der-Martirosian, C. 2010 Screening for oral health literacy in an urban dental clinic Journal of Public Health Dentistry To evaluate a health literacy instrument based on the REALM that incorporates dental and medical terms into one 84-item REALM-D measure and determine its association with patient characteristics of a culturally diverse dental clinic population Adult patients 200 Oral health clinic urban centre Los Angeles, California REALM-D
Macek, M., Haynes, D., Wells, W., Bauer-Leffler, S., Cotten, P., Parker, R. 2010 Measuring conceptual health knowledge in the context of oral health literacy: preliminary results Journal of Public Health Dentistry To assess the validity and reliability of a new instrument and describe conceptual oral health knowledge among a sample of low-income adults Adult residents of Baltimore 100 Baltimore residents randomly selected from a list of those that had landlines REALM and the S-ToFHLA to develop CMOHK
Parker, E., Jamieson, L. 2010 Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes BMC Oral Health To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians Indigenous adults 468 Convenience sample of Indigenous adults living in the Port Augusta region of Australia REALD-30 and measures from OHL-14
Vann, W., Lee, J., Baker, D., Divaris, K. 2010 Oral health literacy among female caregivers: Impact on oral health outcomes in early childhood Journal of Dental Research To investigate the association of female caregivers’ oral health literacy with their knowledge, behaviours and the reported oral health status of their young children Child/ caregiver dyads from the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project 1273 Caregivers and children enrolled in the Women’s Infants and Children’s (WIC)Supplemental Nutrition Program in North Carolina REALD-30 and oral hygiene behaviours
Wells, P., Caplan, D., Strauss, R., Bell, D., George, M. 2010 An oral health survey of the Lumbee tribe in South-eastern North Carolina The Journal of Dental Hygiene To evaluate access to dental care issues, oral health knowledge and oral health-related quality of life of the Lumbee tribe Adult Lumbee tribe members 118 Convenience sample of American Indian attending the Lumbee Tribe Homecoming in North Carolina OHIP-14 and survey
Lee, Y., Divaris, K., Baker, A. Vann, W. 2011 The relationship of oral health literacy with oral health-related quality of life in a multi-racial sample of low-income female caregivers Health and Quality of Life Outcomes To investigate the association between oral health literacy (OHL) and Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and explore the racial differences therein among a low-income community-based group of female WIC participants. Low income adult females enrolled in WIC program 1405 Community setting of adult women enrolled in the Women, Infants and Children’s(WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program in 7 counties in North Carolina. OHIP-14, REALD-30
Lee, J., Divaris, K., Baker, A., Rozier. R., Lee, S., Vann, W. 2011 Oral health literacy levels among a low-income WIC population Journal of Public Health Dentistry To determine oral health literacy (OHL) levels and explore potential racial differences in a low-income population Care givers of paediatric patients 1405 Community setting of adult women enrolled in the Women, Infants and Children’s(WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program in 7 counties in North Carolina. REALD-30 and survey
Macek, M., Manski, M., Schneiderman, T., Meakin, S., Haynes, D., Wells, W., Bauer-Leffler, S., Cotton, A. Parker, R. 2011 Knowledge of oral health issues among low-income Baltimore adult: A pilot study Journal of Dental Hygiene Pilot study to document conceptual knowledge of oral health among low income adults in Baltimore Low income adults in Baltimore 100 Baltimore residents randomly selected from a list of those that had landlines BHLOHKP
Stucky, B., Lee, J., Lee, S., Rozier, R., 2011 Development of the two-stage Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology To revise the 30 item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-30) into a more efficient and easier-to-use two-stage model Low income adults (primarily women) enrolled in the WIC program 1405 Low income adults (primarily women) enrolled in the North Carolina WIC supplemental nutrition program REALD-30, TS-REALD
Lee, J., Divaris, K., Baker, A., Rozier, R., Vann, W. 2012 The relationship of oral health literacy and self-efficacy with oral health status and dental neglect American Journal of Public Health To examine the association of oral health literacy (OHL) with oral health status (OHS) and dental neglect (DN) and whether self efficacy mediated or modified these associations Female caregivers 1280 Community setting of adult women enrolled in the Women, Infants and Children’s WIC Supplemental Nutrition Program (in 7 counties in North Carolina. REALD-30
Lee, J., Stucky, B., Rozier, G., Lee, S., Zeldin, L. 2012 Oral health literacy assessment: development of an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish speakers Journal of Public Health Dentistry To develop an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish-speaking adults , evaluate its psychometric properties and determine its comparability to the English version Adults fluent in English or Spanish at various sites in North Carolina 405 Sites that included WIC clinics in various regions of North Carolina, Early Head Start Centre and a continuity care clinic in North Carolina OHLA, OHLA-S
Parker, E., Misan, G., Chong, A., Mills, A., Roberts-Thomson, K., Horowitz, A., Jamieson, L. 2012 An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults living in a rural setting in Australia BMC Public Health To determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health-related self-efficacy Indigenous adults 400 RCT with randomisation Adaptation of the HeLM
Wehmeyer, M., Corwin, C., Guthmiller, J., Lee, J., 2012 The impact of oral health literacy on periodontal health status American Association of Public Health Dentistry To describe the oral health literacy (OHL) among periodontal patients and to examine its association with periodontal health status Adult patients 121 Convenience sample of adult patients presenting for initial consultation appointment to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinic REALD-30 and survey and periodontal exam
Wong, H., Bridges, S., You. C., McGrath, C., Au, T., Parthasarathy, D. 2012 Development and validation of Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry To develop and validate an instrument , the Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry Parents of paediatric dental patients 200 Convenience sample of parents of paediatric patients attending the Paediatric Dentistry Clinic in Hong Kong REALD-99 translated to Chinese and modified to the HKREALD-30 and clinical examination
Bridges, S., Parthasarathy, D., Au, T., Wong, H., Yiu, C., McGrath, C. 2013 Development of functional oral health literacy assessment instruments: Application of literacy and cognitive theories Journal of Public Health Dentistry Development of a new literacy assessment instrument to establish content and face validity. care givers of paediatric patients Not specified Various clinics and community settings in Hong Kong HKOHLAT-P
Bridges, S., Parthasarathy, D., Wong, H., Yiu, C., Au, T., McGrath, C. 2013 The relationship between caregiver functional oral health literacy and child oral health status Patient Education and Counselling To describe the relationship between caregiver’s oral health literacy (OHL) and the oral health status of their children in an Asian population care givers of paediatric patients 301 Child/caregiver dyads from kindergarten in Hong Kong HKREALD-30 and HKOHLAT-P
Gironda, Der-Martirosian, C., Messadi, D., Holtzman, J. Atchinson, K. 2013 A brief 20-item dental/medical health literacy screen (REALMD-20) Journal of Public Health Dentistry To introduce a brief 20 item screener for limited dental/medical health literacy among adult dental patients Adult patients seeking treatment for the first time 200 Patients seeking treatment for the first time at an Oral Diagnosis Clinic at a School of Dentistry in the US. REALMD-20
Hom, J., Lee, J., Divaris, K., Baker, A., Vann, W. 2013 Oral health literacy and knowledge among patients who are pregnant for the first time The Journal of the American Dental Association To determine the levels of and examine the associations of oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health knowledge in low income patients who were pregnant for the first time Low income women pregnant for the first time 119 Subset of women pregnant for the first time in WIC project in North Carolina REALD-30 and OHL survey
Jamieson, L., Divaris, K., Parker, E., Lee, J. 2013 Oral health literacy comparisons between Indigenous Australians and American Indians Community Dental Health To compare oral health literacy (OHL) levels between two profoundly disadvantaged groups, Indigenous Australians and American Indians and to explore the differences in socio-demographic, dental service utilisation, self-reported oral health indicators, and oral health-related quality of life correlates of OHL among the above. Indigenous adults (Australia), American Indians (North Carolina) 468 (Aus) 254 (USA) Convenience sample of Indigenous adults living in the Port Augusta region of Australia and a convenience sample of caregivers attending the WIC clinics at selected sites in North Carolina REALD-30 and OHP-14
Jones, K., Parker, E., Mills, H., Horowitz, A., Brennan, D., Jamieson, L. 2013 Development and psychometric validation of a Health Literacy in Dentistry scale (HeLD) Community Dental Health To develop and validate a culturally-appropriate Health Literacy in Dentistry (HeLD) instrument for use amongst Indigenous Australians Indigenous adults 209 Convenience sample of Indigenous adults living in the Port Augusta region of Australia HeLD
Sistani, M., Montazeri, A., Yazdani, R., Murtomaa, H. 2013 New oral health literacy instrument for public health: development and pilot testing Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry To develop a functional oral health literacy (OHL) instrument for adults including new measures of literacy skills (OHL-AQ) Adult citizens living in Tehran 97 Randomly selected households in Tehran OHL-AQ
Sistani, M., Yazdani, R. Virtanen, J., Pakdaman,A., Murtomaa, H. 2013 Determinants of oral health: Does oral health literacy matter? ISRN Dentistry To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants , as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health Adults living in Tehran 1031 Random area sampling in Tehran OHL-AQ
Sistani, M., Yazdani, R. Virtanen, J., Pakdaman,A., Murtomaa, H. 2013 Oral health literacy and information sources among adults in Tehran, Iran Community Dental Health To assess oral health literacy level and oral health information of Iranian adults in Tehran, and to determine the factors related to oral health literacy Adults 1031 Multi-stage random sample from Tehran, Iran OHL-AQ
Ueno, M. Takeuchi, S., Oshiro, A., Kawaguchi, Y. 2013 Relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behaviors and clinical status in Japanese adults Journal of Dental Sciences To investigate how oral health literacy relates to oral health behaviors, as well as clinical dental and periodontal conditions. Adult residents of Akita in Japan 518 Adult residents aged older than 20 living in Akita, Japan Self administered questionnaire and dental exam
Wong, H., Bridges, S., Yiu, C., McGrath, C., Au, T., Parthasarathy, D., 2013 Validation of the Hong Kong Literacy Assessment Task for Paediatric Dentistry (HKOHLAT-P) International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry To validate an original instrument. The Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task (HKOHLAT-P) for paediatric dentistry Parent/ Child dyads 200 pairs Convenience sample of 200 pairs of parents/children attending the Paediatric Dentistry Clinic in Hong Kong HKOHLAT-P, ToFHLiD, ECO-HIS and interviews using HKREALD-30
Holtzman, J., Atchison, J., Gironda, M., Radbod, R., Gornbein, J. 2013 The association between oral health literacy and failed appointments in adults attending a university-based general dental clinic Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology To determine the association between personal characteristics, a person’s oral health literacy and failing to show for dental appointments Adults 200 Secondary analysis of 200 adult patients at a university dental clinic REALM-D and socio-demographic survey