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Table 2 Anti-caries Therapeutics for Controlled Release

From: Biomaterials Approaches to Combating Oral Biofilms and Dental Disease

Agent Released Mode of Action Relative Costs Reference
Fluoride mixed mode low Aaltonen et al., 2000 [18]
Chlorhexidine disinfectant low Twetman, 2004 [19]
Xylitol noncariogenic sweeteners low Smits & Arends, 1985. [20]
Tanzer, 1995 [21]
Commercial antibiotics mixed targets moderate  
Anti-bacterial peptides (defensins, magainin derivatives, bacteriocins and cecropins) cell membrane perforation moderate/high Otvos et al., 2004 [22]
Ericksen et al., 2005 [23]
pH Buffers maintain non-acidic pH low Lynch, 2004 [24]
Chelators (EGTA) strips Ca+2 from biofilm polysaccharide; causes biofilm disruption low Ozerdem et al., 2003 [25]
Raad et al., 2003 [26]
Polysaccharide modifiers (lyase, AlCl3)   moderate Albrecht and Schiller, 2005 [27]
Stoodley et al., 2001 [28]
Enzymes (proteases) enzymatically degrades cell walls and adhesin proteins moderate/high Berg et al., 2001 [29]
Johansen et al., 1997 [30]
Sato et al., 1983 [31]
Quorum sensing analogs (furanones, salicylic acid) negates las and Rhl regulon systems, down-regulates polysaccharide synthesis moderate/high Daniels et al., 2004 [32]
Baveja et al., 2004 [33]
Anti-adhesin blockers negates specific adhesion of select bacteria to exclusive ligand high Hajishengallis et al., 1992 [34]