Skip to main content

Table 1 Details of European studies considered.

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States

First author, year of publication Location Study Perioda Sex Age Population Further details of study design Endpointsb
Experimental studies
Larsson 1991 [1] Sweden (Malmö) 3 to 6 months M 21 to 70 Mean 36 29 snuff users with degree 2 to 4 mucosal lesions selected from Andersson 1989 [18] Subjects advised to stop or change their habit ML
Andersson 1995 [2] Sweden (Malmö) 12 weeks Not given Mean 37 24 users of snuff brand A, 18 users of low-nicotine snuff brand B Subjects observed for 2 weeks, then brand A users switched to brand B for 10 weeksc ML
Andersson 2003 [3] Sweden (Malmö) 24 weeks Not given Mean 34 20 users of snuff brand A with degree 3 or 4 lesions Subjects switched to brand B with lower pH for 12 weeks, then to brand C with same pH as brand B but lower nicotined ML
Prospective studies
Roosaar 2006 [4] Sweden (Uppsala county) 1973–1974 to 2002 M 15+ 1115 men with "snus-induced lesions" in 1973–1974 followed up Selected from 7890 men examined ML
Case-control studies
Rosenquist 2005 [5] Sweden (South) 2001 to 2004 M+F 33 to 87 132 cases of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, 320 population controls Cases and controls matched on age ± 3 years, sex and county ML
Cross-sectional studies of populations unselected by ST use
Tyldesley 1971 [50] England (Lancashire) Not given M Not given 402 coal miners - ML
Modéer 1980 [6] Sweden (Stockholm) Not given M+F 13 to 14 Mean 13.5 232 school children - PD
Jungell 1985 [7] Finland (Tammisaari) Not given M 17 to 29 441 military recruits - ML
Salonen 1990 [8] Sweden (Älvsborg county) 1983 To 1984 Me 20+ 477 randomly selected male adults - ML
Hirsch 1991 [9] Sweden (Gothenburg) Not given M+F 14 to 19 Mean 16.8 2145 teenagers attending for dental check-up - DC
Wickholm 2004 [10] Sweden (National) 1985 M+F 31 to 40 1674 adults born on 20th of month - PD
Bergström 2006 [11] Sweden (National) 2002 to 2003 M 26 to 54 84 submariners - PD, DC
Montén 2006 [12] Sweden (Göteborg) Not given M 19 103 never smokers Subsample from larger epidemiological study PD
Cross-sectional studies of populations selected by ST use and/or presence of oral lesions
Pindborg 1963 [13] Denmark (Copenhagen) Not given M 39 to 83 12 long-term snuff users SIL probable inclusion criterion ML
Roed-Petersen 1973 [14] Denmark (Copenhagen) 1956 to 1970 M+F < 20 to 90+ Mean 55 450 oral leukoplakia patients - ML, OP
Axéll 1976 [15] Sweden (Not given) Not given M 20 to 88 Mean 50 114 snuff users with oral lesions - ML
Hirsch 1982 [16] Sweden (Gothenburg) Not given M 15 to 84 Mean 41 50 habitual snuff users SIL probable inclusion criterion ML
Frithiof 1983 [17] Sweden (Stockholm) Not given M 31 to 79 Mean 55 21 long-term snuff users referred to dental school for oral lesions - ML, PD
Andersson 1989 [18] Sweden (Malmö) 1986 to 1987 M 17 to 80 Mean 36 252 snuff users; construction and shipyard workers and outpatients - ML, PD
Andersson 1994 [19] Sweden (Malmö) Not given M 21 to 75 Mean 42 45 habitual snuff users and 9 users of CT selected from Andersson 1989 [18] Loose and portion-bag users matched on consumption and usage ML
Rolandsson 2005 [20] Sweden (Värmland) Not given M 16 to 25 Mean 21 80 ice hockey players, of which 40 were snuff users and 40 non users Snuff users and non users age matched ML, PD, DC
  1. a Length of follow-up period for experimental studies, period of follow-up for prospective studies, and time study conducted otherwise
  2. b DC = dental caries, ML = mucosal lesion, OP = oral pain, PD = periodontal or gingival diseases
  3. c Brand A 0.8–0.9% nicotine, 8.2–8.5 pH; Brand B 0.4–0.5% nicotine, 7.8–8.2 pH
  4. d Brand A 0.8% nicotine, 8.6 pH; Brand B 0.8% nicotine, 8.0 pH; Brand C 0.4–0.5% nicotine, 8.0 pH
  5. e Women were also studied but none used snuff