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Table 10 ST use and endpoints relevant to dental caries and tooth loss – evidence from the USA

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States

Study Endpoint Time of Exposurea Statistic Exposed Unexposedb Summary of statistical testsc
Robertson 1997 [38] Teeth present ST use Mean - - No significant difference
Tomar 1999 [40] Teeth present CT current Mean 23.89 24.29 No significant differenced
Tomar 1999 [40] Teeth present Snuff current Mean 22.99 24.29 p < 0.005d
Dietrich 2007 [25] Tooth loss CT ever HR - - HR 1.14 (1.04–1.24)e
Greer 1983 [27] Dental caries ST use % 0.0 - "No evidence of dietary-associated caries"
Poulson 1984 [28] Dental caries ST use % 0.0 - "Tobacco-associated dental caries ...was absent"
Ernster 1990 [34] Dental caries ST use % - - No significant difference
Sinusas 1992 [36] Dental caries ST use % 7.95 13.56 OR 0.55 (0.19–1.51)
Offenbacher 1985 [29] Decayed, missing and filled teeth ST use Mean 4.05 3.32 0.05 < p < 0.1f
Robertson 1997 [38] Decayed or filled teeth ST use Mean - - Higher in users (significance unknown)
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled teeth CT current Mean 7.99 6.97 p < 0.05d
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled teeth Snuff current Mean 6.11 6.97 No significant differenced
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled coronal surfaces CT current Mean 19.68 17.43 No significant differenced
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled coronal surfaces Snuff current Mean 15.58 17.43 No significant differenced
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled root surfaces CT current Mean 3.84 1.05 p < 0.005d
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled root surfaces Snuff current Mean 0.86 1.05 No significant differenced
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled root surfaces CT current % - - OR 4.18 (1.96–8.92)g
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed or filled root surfaces Snuff current % - - OR 0.67 (0.26–1.74)g
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed root surfaces CT current Mean 3.24 0.88 p < 0.005d
Tomar 1999 [40] Decayed root surfaces Snuff current Mean 0.81 0.88 No significant difference
  1. a In all studies except two, exposure is ST use unspecified as to whether current or ever. In Tomar 1999 [40] exposure is either current CT and no other form of tobacco, or current snuff and no other form of tobacco, and in Dietrich 2007 [25] exposure ever CT
  2. b In all studies except two, comparison is with ST non-use. In Tomar 1999 [40] it is with never tobacco and in Dietrich 2007 [25] it is with never CT
  3. c All statistical tests are unadjusted for any potential confounding variable, unless otherwise indicated. Where necessary ORs and 95% CIs are calculated from the data provided in the source paper
  4. d Adjusted for age, and race or ethnicity
  5. e Hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age, other tobacco use, race, BMI, physical activity, diabetes, profession, routine medical examination, alcohol, calorie intake, multivitamin use and Vitamin C supplement use
  6. f Estimated from means and standard errors given separately for subjects with and without gingivitis, between which groups no significant differences were seen associated with ST use
  7. g Adjusted for age, race or ethnicity, education and past-year dental visit