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Table 3 Percentage and OR (95% CI) of participants who reported problem with swallowing and pain by socio demographic variables and malocclusion index, SMO.

From: Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children

Variables Problem with swallowing % (n) Adjusted step OR (95% CI Problem with pain % (n) Adjusted step OR (95% CI)
Socio demographics     
Kinondoni 6.5 (65) 1 18.7 (188) 1
Temeke 9.2 (55)* 1.3 (0.7–2.3) 24.1 (144)** 1.5 (1.1–2.1)
Boy 6.6 (42) 1 19.3 (12) 1
Girl 8.0 (78) 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 21.7 (210) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)
Urban 8.4 (95) 1 20.9 (236) |
Rural 5.3 (25)* 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 20.3 (96) 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
12 yr 7.2 (29) 1 18.0 (73) 1
13 yr 6.1 (43) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 20.1 (143) 1.2 (0.7–1.8)
14 9.9 (48) 1.1 (0.5–2.3) 23.9 (116) 1.3 (0.8–2.1)
Both parents low education 8.4 (30) 1 20.3 (73) 1
One low/one high 7.4 (14) 0.9 (0.4–1.8) 21.6 (41) 1.1 (0.7–1.7)
Both parents high education 7.0 (19) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 20.5 (56) 1.1 (0.7–1.7)
Clinical status     
SMO = 0 (at least one malocclusion diagnosed) 1.0 (5) 1 17.1 (87) 1
SMO > 0 5.3 (46)** 6.8 (2.7–17.4) 21.0 (182)** 1.4 (1.0–2.0)
  1. **p < 0.001, *p < 0.05