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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of being dissatisfied with dental appearance and function according to socio-demographics (step 1), clinically assessed criteria of malocclusion, SMO (step 11) and subject-rated oral health (step III)

From: Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children

Variables Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted step I OR (95% CI
Step I (socio demographics R 2=   
Kinondoni 1 1
Temeke 0.7 (0.5–0.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
Boy 1 1
Girl 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Urban 1 1
Rural 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.7 (0.4–1.0)
12 yr 1 1
13 yr 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
14 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 0.9 (0.7–1.4)
Both parents low education 1 1
One low/one high 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
Both parents high education 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
Step II (clinical status)   
SMO = 0 1 1
SMO > 0 1.6 (1.2–1.9) 1.2 (0.6–1.6)
Step III (reported problems)   
Pain : no 1 1
Pain: yes 1.4 (1.1–1.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
Problem swallowing: no 1 1
Problem swallowing: yes 1.5 (1.0–2.1) 1.1 (0.5–1.9)
Problem position: no 1 1
Problem position: yes 3.4 (2.5–4.7) 4.3 (2.7–6.9)
Problem spaces: no 1 1
Problem spaces: yes 1.7 (1.1–2.4) 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
Step IV (oral disadvantage)   
OIDP = 0 1 1
OIDO > 0 1.8 (1.4–2.3) 2.2 (1.4–3.1)
Self rated health: good 1 1
Self rated health: bad 3.3 (2.1–5.1) 2.7 (1.5–5.1)