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Table 10 Hierarchy of strength of evidence for therapeutic decisions [slightly modified after [14]]

From: The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

Level Description
I Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
II Article about an RCT
III Article about an experimental study without randomization; cohort study; case-control-study
IV Article about a non-experimental study (cross-sectional study; case series; case report)
V Narrative review or expert opinion (based on clinical experience) without explicit clinical appraisal (e.g., statements, editorials; expert commentaries to published articles; interviews with experts, brief references to NTI-tss in articles; commercial-like reviews)