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Table 19 Complications and side effects associated with the use of the NTI-tss device as described in the identified publications

From: The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

Study Complications/Side effects
Clark & Minakuchi [2] • Anterior open bite induced after wearing the device 24 hours a day over an extended period of time (n = 1)
Kavaklı [21] • Radiologically diagnosed widened periodontal ligament plus alveolar bone resorption in one tooth (n = 1/20)
Jokstad et al [10] • Sensitive lower front teeth (n = 1/18)
  • Dryness of the mouth while sleeping (n = 6/18) due to a forced open jaw caused by the NTI-tss design
  • Swallowing difficulties (n = 2/18)
  • The protruding tip of the device was felt to be annoying (n = 1/18)
  • The device was falling out or being taken out unconsciously while sleeping (n = 2/18)
Magnusson et al. [9] • Altered occlusion between the 3- and 6-month follow-up: "the vertical overbite decreased with one millimeter, and the number of occluding tooth pairs was reduced from 10 to 15" (n = 1/14)
  • Transient tenderness in the teeth when the device was used (n = 6/14)
  • Tongue thrusting, dry mouth, increased salivation, snoring (as reported by "single patients")
Fleten & Gjerdet [13] • Swallowing of an NTI-tss device, which was lodged at the esophageal entrance (n = 1)
Fitins [27] • Sensitive and painful maxillary central incisor (n = 1)
  • Moderate mobility of and local bone loss around three maxillary incisors