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Table 1 Sample distribution by indicators of poverty and social exclusion

From: Poverty, social exclusion and dental caries of 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru

Variable Domain Indicator n (%)
Poverty Housing quality Inadequate housing (walls and ceiling not made of bricks and cement) 72 (80.0)
  Household crowding Overcrowded household (more than 3 persons per room) 4 (4.4)
  Access to sanitation No access to safe water supply and sewerage facilities 90 (100.0)
  Access to education Low school enrolment (1 or more children aged 6–12 not attending school) 2 (2.2)
  Dependence rate High dependency rate (household head without secondary education, more than 2 dependants) 31 (34.4)
Social Exclusion Distributional and material Labour market performance (more than 12 months of unemployment) 2 (2.2)
   Living standards (last decile of Proportional Deprivation Index) 0 (0.0)
   Income poverty (below 50% of the mean equivalent household income) 13 (14.4)
   Educational status (No vocational training) 80 (88.9)
   Housing conditions (less than 1 room per person or no bath/toilet) 62 (68.9)
   Residential area (feeling of insecurity and bad living conditions in neighbourhood) 32 (35.6)
  Relational and participatory Social relationships (no close friends and limited chances to contact other people) 12 (13.3)
   Politics (pessimism concerning political influence and no interest in politics) 82 (91.1)
   Anomie (feeling lonely or that life is too complicated) 27 (30.0)
   Anxiety (depression and frightening thoughts) 37 (41.1)
  Long-term perspective Development of living conditions 28 (31.1)