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Table 4 Number (n) and percentage (%) of children in whom each treatment was effective for different symptoms

From: Signs and symptoms associated with primary tooth eruption: a clinical trial of nonpharmacological remedies

   Group p value*
Clinical manifestation   1) Cuddle therapy (n = 53) 2) Piece of ice (n = 50) 3) Rubbing gums (n = 50) 4) Teething rings (n = 51) 5) Food for chewing (n = 50)
Drooling n % 47 (95.9)a 21 (44.7)b 29 (61.7)b 47 (94.0)a 37 (86.0)a <0.001
Lethargy n % 13 (59.1)a 10 (83.3)a 17 (70.8)a 11 (33.3)b 9 (36.0)b 0.003
Loss of appetite n % 21 (52.5)a 13 (27.7)b 22 (50.0)a 17 (89.5)a 31 (83.8)a <0.001
Lack of sleep n % 41 (97.6)a 45 (97.8)a 41 (100)a 40 (93.0)a 32 (86.5)b 0.042
Gum irritation n % 36 (100)a 42 (100)a 36 (94.7)a 29 (96.7)a 29 (100)a 0.27
Chewing objects n % 29 (100)a 39 (92.9)a 39 (97.5)a 33 (78.6)a 21 (77.8)b 0.003
Finger sucking n % 26 (89.7)a 40 (95.2)a 37 (92.5)a 40 (95.2)a 23 (85.2)a 0.525
Irritability n % 6 (17.1)a 5 (10.9)a 6 (15.8)a 16 (42.1)b 16 (45.7)b <0.001
Red and inflamed gum n % 11 (64.7)a 26 (96.3)b 29 (90.6)b 21 (72.4)a 15 (62.5)a 0.006
Gingival pain n % 18 (100)a 29 (96.7)a 16 (69.6)b 10 (76.9)b 14 (73.7)b 0.012
Crying n % 41 (97.6)a 35 (89.7)a 38 (100)a 34 (91.9)a 32 (94.1)a 0.250
  1. * Chi-squared test
  2. In each row, different letters indicate significant differences between groups (Fisher’s exact test)