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Table 1 Independent variables according to treatment group (n = 220)

From: Treatment outcomes of single-visit versus multiple-visit non-surgical endodontic therapy: a randomised clinical trial

Variable Category All cases (n = 220) Single visit (n = 117) Multiple visits (n = 103) p value
No (Col %) No (Col %) No (Col %)
Gender Male 85 (39 %) 60 (51 %) 25 (24 %) <0.001*
Female 135 (61 %) 57 (49 %) 78 (76 %)
Operator A 112 (51 %) 56 (48 %) 56 (54 %) 0.335
B 108 (49 %) 61 (52 %) 47 (46 %)
Use of loupe Yes 112 (51 %) 56 (48 %) 56 (54 %) 0.335
No 108 (49 %) 61 (52 %) 47 (46 %)
Arch Maxillary 140 (64 %) 82 (70 %) 58 (56 %) 0.034*
Mandibular 80 (36 %) 35 (30 %) 45 (44 %)
Tooth position Anterior 49 (22 %) 31 (26 %) 18 (17 %) 0.109
Posterior 171 (78 %) 86 (74 %) 85 (83 %)
Number of canal Single 89 (40 %) 55 (47 %) 34 (33 %) 0.035*
Multiple 131 (60 %) 62 (53 %) 69 (67 %)
Apical periodontitis Yes 129 (59 %) 66 (56 %) 63 (61 %) 0.475
No 91 (41 %) 51 (44 %) 40 (39 %)
C-shaped canal Yes 4 (2 %) 2 (2 %) 2 (2 %) >0.999a
No 216 (98 %) 115 (98 %) 101 (98 %)
Periodontal pocket Yes 32 (15 %) 17 (15 %) 15 (15 %) 0.994
No 188 (85 %) 100 (85 %) 88 (85 %)
Tooth vitality Vital 37 (17 %) 20 (17 %) 17 (17 %) 0.907
Non-vital 183 (83 %) 97 (83 %) 86 (83 %)
Tooth mobility Yes 8 (4 %) 2 (2 %) 6 (6 %) 0.151a
No 212 (96 %) 115 (98 %) 97 (94 %)
Opposing teeth Missing 6 (3 %) 3 (3 %) 3 (3 %) 0.367a
Sound 153 (70 %) 84 (72 %) 69 (67 %)
Filled 43 (19 %) 24 (20 %) 19 (18 %)
Crown 18 (8 %) 6 (5 %) 12 (12 %)
Tender to percussion Yes 109 (50 %) 49 (42 %) 60 (58 %) 0.015*
No 111 (50 %) 68 (58 %) 43 (42 %)
Abscess or sinus tract Yes 42 (19 %) 20 (17 %) 22 (21 %) 0.422
No 178 (81 %) 97 (83 %) 81 (79 %)
Preoperative pain Yes 80 (36 %) 33 (28 %) 47 (46 %) 0.007*
No 140 (64 %) 84 (72 %) 56 (54 %)
Length of root canal filling Adequate 181 (82 %) 101 (86 %) 80 (78 %) 0.115a
Overfilling 33 (15 %) 15 (13 %) 18 (17 %)
Underfilling 6 (3 %) 1 (1 %) 5 (5 %)
Density of root canal filling Adequate 203 (92 %) 109 (93 %) 94 (91 %) 0.598
Inadequate 17 (8 %) 8 (7 %) 9 (9 %)
Postoperative restoration Intra-coronal 70 (32 %) 33 (28 %) 37 (36 %) 0.220
Extra-coronal 150 (68 %) 84 (72 %) 66 (64 %)
Treatment outcome Success 194 (88 %) 104 (89 %) 90 (87 %) 0.729
Failure 26 (12 %) 13 (11 %) 13 (13 %)
Postoperative pain within 1 week Yes 37 (17 %) 25 (21 %) 12 (12 %) 0.055
No 183 (83 %) 92 (79 %) 91 (88 %)
Postoperative pain at final evaluation (≥18 months) Yes 2 (1 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %) >0.999a
No 218 (99 %) 116 (99 %) 102 (99 %)
Age [Mean (SD)] 46.38 (14.06) 46.80 (15.24) 45.89 (12.65) 0.629
Preoperative pain intensity [Mean (SD)] 1.58 (2.62) 1.01 (2.12) 2.23 (2.97) 0.001*
Chairside Time [Mean (SD)] 76.48 (34.57) 62.03 (23.47) 92.90 (37.77) <0.001*
Postoperative pain intensity [Mean (SD)] 0.05 (0.48) 0.04 (0.46) 0.05 (0.49) 0.928
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. aFisher’s exact test