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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristic of all patients

From: Intraoral photobiomodulation-induced orthodontic tooth alignment: a preliminary study

  Total Control PBM
  mean or % SD mean or % SD mean or % SD p-value*
Demographic Characteristics
  n 19   8   11   
  Age (years) 13.9 1.7 13.5 1.8 14.1 1.7 NS
  Female (%) 68.4   62.5   72.7   NS
  Caucasian (%) 68.4   75   63.6   NS
Clinical Characteristics
  Number of Arches 28   10   18   
  Upper Arches 13   3   10   NS
  Lower Arches 15   7   8   NS
  Mandible (%) 53.6   70   44.4   NS
  Crowding (LII - mm) 6.7 2.6 5.8 1.6 7.3 3.0 NS
  1. NS - Not significant
  2. *p-value for comparison of group means by Mann-Whitney U or differences in proportions by chi-square test as appropriate
  3. * p-value cutoff of 0.05 is used to determine significance