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Table 1 The association between baseline characteristics and dental care visit during study period by water fluoridation program

From: The differences in healthcare utilization for dental caries based on the implementation of water fluoridation in South Korea

Variables Water flouridation P-value
Yes No
Visit Non-visit P-value    P-value
N/Mean %/SD N/Mean %/SD N/Mean %/SD N/Mean %/SD
Regional variables
Period from introduction of water fluoridation 6.40 ±4.67 6.64 ±4.74 <.0001
Number of dentists per 1,000 residents 0.29 ±0.15 0.29 ±0.15 <.0001 0.28 ±0.12 0.27 ±0.12 <.0001 0.0021
Financial independence rate of local government 46.48 ±23.11 47.56 ±23.36 <.0001 51.77 ±24.63 50.36 ±24.45 <.0001 <.0001
Individual variables
Sex
 Male 10,934 44.14 13,837 55.86 <.0001 98,496 45.88 116,178 54.12 <.0001 <.0001
 Female 12,142 49.86 12,209 50.14 107,402 51.52 101,052 48.48
Age (Years)
 -19 8,880 59.43 6,063 40.57 <.0001 78,779 61.62 49,071 38.38 <.0001 <.0001
 20–29 3,546 51.14 3,388 48.86 31,139 51.96 28,790 48.04
 30–39 3,663 43.75 4,710 56.25 32,436 45.26 39,233 54.74
 40–49 3,290 43.90 4,205 56.10 29,275 44.93 35,884 55.07
 50–59 1,872 43.30 2,451 56.70 16,961 44.98 20,743 55.02
 60–69 1,366 34.45 2,599 65.55 12,956 37.25 21,824 62.75
  < 70 459 14.86 2,630 85.14 4,352 16.71 21,685 83.29
Income (percentile)
 -10 % (low) 1,911 35.95 3,405 64.05 <.0001 15,930 35.78 28,588 64.22 <.0001 <.0001
 11–20 % 1,404 43.58 1,818 56.42 12,124 44.91 14,874 55.09
 21–30 % 1,705 44.68 2,111 55.32 14,157 46.55 16,253 53.45
 31–40 % 2,014 45.56 2,407 54.44 16,787 46.70 19,163 53.30
 41–50 % 2,289 46.19 2,667 53.81 19,872 48.74 20,899 51.26
 51–60 % 2,518 47.58 2,774 52.42 21,769 49.95 21,811 50.05
 61–70 % 2,818 49.68 2,854 50.32 24,962 50.83 24,148 49.17
 71–80 % 2,988 50.50 2,929 49.50 27,172 52.05 25,032 47.95
 81–90 % 2,840 50.87 2,743 49.13 28,038 52.66 25,206 47.34
  + 91 % (high) 2,589 52.55 2,338 47.45 25,087 54.13 21,256 45.87
Types of insurance coverage
 Medical Aid 449 22.90 1,512 77.10 <.0001 3,868 23.24 12,778 76.76 <.0001 <.0001
 NHI, self-employed insured 10,619 46.96 11,995 53.04 92,100 48.14 99,217 51.86
 NHI, employee insured 12,008 48.92 12,539 51.08 109,930 51.09 105,235 48.91
Year of baseline
 2003 20,564 47.40 22,819 52.60 <.0001 180,731 49.01 187,996 50.99 <.0001 <.0001
 2004 661 55.22 536 44.78 5,917 58.95 4,120 41.05
 2005 412 61.40 259 38.60 3,783 65.57 1,986 34.43
 2006 346 58.25 248 41.75 3,595 58.85 2,514 41.15
 2007 271 51.82 252 48.18 3,056 57.40 2,268 42.60
 2008 272 47.97 295 52.03 2,897 57.84 2,112 42.16
 2009 221 42.91 294 57.09 2,276 49.04 2,365 50.96
 2010 170 37.53 283 62.47 1,808 41.23 2,577 58.77
 2011 96 24.55 295 75.45 1,093 26.17 3,083 73.83
 2012 44 10.21 387 89.79 563 12.55 3,924 87.45
 2013 19 4.79 378 95.21 179 4.01 4,285 95.99
Dentofacial anomalies
 Yes 13 100.00 0 0.00 0.0001 70 100.00 0 0.00 <.0001 <.0001
 No 23,063 46.96 26,046 53.04 205,828 48.65 217,230 51.35
Disorders of toothe development and eruption
 Yes 89 100.00 0 0.00 <.0001 792 100.00 0 0.00 <.0001 <.0001
 No 22,987 46.88 26,046 53.12 205,106 48.56 217,230 51.44
Total 23,07 46.98 26,046 53.02   205,898 48.66 217,230 51.34   <.0001
  1. †The results of a Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test to investigate the differences of distribution for categorical variables based on water fluoridation