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Table 1 Putative effects of periodontal disease and salient CHD pathogenetic pathways

From: Oral health and coronary heart disease

Pathways, and pathway numbers corresponding to those in Figure One of Mathews et al. [8] Refs.
a. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-64-↑platelet factors-73-↑hypercoagulability a. [2, 4, 5, 64, 65]
b. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-65-↑oxLDL-51-↑hypercholesterolaemia b. [2, 4, 5, 64, 65]
c. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-62-↑ROS-85-↑inflammatory state c. [2, 4, 5, 64, 65]
d. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-41-↑TNFα/IL6-↑inflammatory state d. [4, 5, 64, 65]
e. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-41-↑TNFα/IL6-↑inflammatory state-60-↑insulin resistance e. [2, 64, 66, 67]
f. 5-23-↑P. gingivalis-43-↑periodontitis-41-↑TNFα/IL6-↑inflammatory state-60-↑insulin resistance-↑vasodilation f. [68]
  1. ↑ denotes up regulation/increase, ↓ denotes down regulation/decrease, x-y-z indicates pathway connecting x to y to z. FFA free fatty acids, IGF 1 insulin-like growth factor-1, IL6 interleukin-6, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MAPK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, MCP 1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, NO nitric oxide, oxLDL oxidised LDL, P. gingivalis Porphyromonas gingivalis, PI3K phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K:MAPK ratio of PI3K to MAPK, ROS reactive oxygen species, SMC smooth muscle cell, TNFα tumour necrosis factor-α, VCAM 1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1