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Table 1 Mean probing depth, bone density, and root length between the groups at each time interval

From: Effectiveness of bovine-derived xenograft versus bioactive glass with periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics in adults: a randomized, controlled clinical trial

Parameter Time Group 1 (CAOT without graft) Group 2 (CAOT with xenograft) Group 3 (CAOT with bioactive glass) P-value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Probing depth (mm) T1 1.54 0.17 1.57 0.13 1.56 0.14 0.054
T2 1.17b 0.16 1.19a 0.14 1.19a 0.17 0.047*
T3 1.18b 0.19 1.20a 0.20 1.19a,b 0.18 0.012*
Bone density T1 63.24c 7.21 65.54b 6.41 66.41a 6.32 <0.000*
T2 33.42c 6.81 51.11a 6.21 42.32b 6.43 <0.000*
T3 64.11c 6.22 97.53a 6.33 80.12b 6.31 <0.000*
Root length (mm) T1 12.81b 0.73 12.82a 0.54 12.82a 0.51 0.037*
T2 12.79 0.71 12.79 0.64 12.80 0.53 0.968
T3 12.78 0.64 12.78 0.53 12.79 0.52 0.060
  1. Notes: P, probability level; *P ≤ 0.05; different superscript letters in the same row are significantly different. n number; T1, before CAOT (baseline); T2, after debonding (post-treatment); T3, 9 months after debonding. Abbreviations: CAOT corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment, SD standard deviation