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Table 4 Comparisons of colony amounts of Candida species by demographic characteristics, oral conditions, systemic conditions, lifestyle, medications, and relocation from home in carriers

From: Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans on the tongue dorsa of elderly people living in a post-disaster area: a cross-sectional survey

  C. albicans Non-albicans
  No. of carriers Mean log CFU (SD) p-valuea No. of carriers Mean log CFU (SD) p-value
Sex
 Female 78 1.44 (0.65) 0.72 42 1.91 (0.92) 0.63
 Malea 63 1.44 (0.66)   21 1.73 (0.74)  
 Age (in years)
  ≥ 80 29 1.59 (0.74) 0.24 18 1.87 (0.88) 0.84
  < 80 112 1.40 (0.63)   45 1.85 (0.86)  
Having one or more decayed teeth
 Yes 40 1.45 (0.60) 0.77 13 1.56 (0.62) 0.31
 No 101 1.43 (0.68)   50 1.93 (0.90)  
Number of remaining teeth
 Edentulous 33 1.88 (0.67) <0.01b 27 2.17 (0.93) 0.09
 1-19 60 1.35 (0.61)   32 1.62 (0.78)  
 20 or more 48 1.25 (0.56)   4 1.55 (0.24)  
Having periodontal pockets
 Yes 41 1.32 (0.66) 0.16 14 1.69 (0.71) 0.55
 No 100 1.49 (0.65)   49 1.90 (0.60)  
Oral hygiene
 Poor 25 1.39 (0.65) 0.70 8 1.69 (0.73) 0.75
 Fair/Good 116 1.45 (0.66)   55 1.88 (0.88)  
Use of denture
 Yes 93 1.52 (0.68) 0.07 59 1.88 (0.88) 0.49
 No 48 1.29 (0.58)   4 1.45 (0.40)  
Obesity (BMI ≥ 25)
 Yes 11 1.42 (0.72) 0.86 31 1.93 (0.89) 0.50
 No 130 1.44 (0.65)   32 1.78 (0.84)  
Hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 or diastolic BP ≥90)
 Yes 38 1.61 (0.63) 0.04 24 1.84 (0.77) 0.96
 No 103 1.37 (0.65)   39 1.86 (0.92)  
Dyslipidemia (HDLC ≤ 34 or LDLC ≥140)
 Yes 37 1.31 (0.57) 0.20 14 1.90 (0.92) 0.99
 No 104 1.48 (0.68)   49 1.84 (0.85)  
Hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥5.6)
 Yes 31 1.58 (0.67) 0.14 17 2.07 (0.71) 0.50
 No 110 1.40 (0.65)   46 1.77 (0.90)  
Current smoker
 Yes 11 1.42 (0.72) 0.86 5 1.63 (0.88) 0.58
 No 130 1.44 (0.65)   58 1.87 (0.86)  
Daily drinker
 Yes 19 1.72 (0.67) 0.40 7 1.81 (1.26) 0.54
 No 122 1.39 (0.64)   56 1.86 (0.81)  
Taking antihypertensive drugs
 Yes 83 1.48 (0.65) 0.30 38 1.98 (0.83) 0.09
 No 58 1.37 (0.66)   25 1.65 (0.88)  
Taking diabetes drugs
 Yes 8 1.45 (0.60) 0.80 5 2.11 (0.82) 0.41
 No 133 1.43 (0.66)   58 1.83 (0.87)  
Taking hypnotics
 Yes 25 1.49 (0.76) 0.81 12 2.15 (0.79) 0.14
 No 116 1.42 (0.63)   51 1.78 (0.87)  
Relocation from home
 Yes 65 1.40 (0.65) 0.50 25 1.82 (0.84) 0.72
 No 76 1.47 (0.66)   38 1.88 (0.89)  
  1. aStatistical differences were examined by Mann-Whitney U test for bivariate combinations, and Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of 3 groups
  2. bPost-hoc multiple comparisons using Bonferroni adjustment indicated that there was statistical significance between edentulous and others