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Table 2 Percentages and frequencies of recognized signs, symptoms and risk factors of oral cancer

From: Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study

Signs and symptoms Totals % (n) Risk factors Totals % (n)
Dry mouth   Use of Toombak  
No 55.8(279) No 4.6(23)
Yes 44.2(221) Yes 95.4(477)
Bleeding   Smoking  
No 45.8(229) No 10.8(54)
Yes 54.2(271) Yes 89.2(446)
Burning sensation   Alcohol  
No 58.6(293) No 20.6(103)
Yes 41.4(207) Yes 79.4(397)
Numbness   Family history  
No 50.8(254) No 72.6(363)
Yes 49.2(246) Yes 27.4(137)
Difficulty in chewing   Exposure to sun  
No 48.9(244) No 80.6(403)
Yes 51.1(255) Yes 19.4(97)
Difficulty in swallowing   Aging  
No 51.2(256) No 69.4(347)
Yes 48.8(244) Yes 30.6(153)
Soreness in mouth   Bad oral hygiene  
No 37.5(187) No 29.4(147)
Yes 62.5(312) Yes 70.6(353)
Teeth loosing   Chronic irritation  
No 46.6(233) No 71.8(359)
Yes 53.4(267) Yes 28.2(141)
Pain   Sedentary life  
No 48.9(244) No 83.6(418)
Yes 51.1(255) Yes 16.6(82)
White patches   Spicy food  
No 36.3(181) No 69.8(349)
Yes 63.7(318) Yes 30.2(151)
Swelling   Spiritual  
No 45(225) No 78(390)
Yes 55(275) Yes 22(110)
Change in color    
No 35(175)   
Yes 65(325)   
Ulcer    
No 32.8(164)   
Yes 67.2(336)