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Table 1 Study characteristics of the included studies in the systemic review/meta-analysis

From: The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in the prevention of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar extraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors/years Country Sample size Type of study Mean age Diagnosis of alveolar osteitis Interventions Outcomes Results
Experimental groups Control group Experimental Control  
Torres-Lagares et al., 2010 [18] Spain expermental:24
Control: 14
Randomized, double-blinded study Average age 32 (ranged, 18 to 57) Blum’s criteria 0.2% Chlorehixidine (CHX) gel Gel placebo 1 case of alveolar osteitis 4 cases of alveolar osteitis The difference was not statistically
Significant (p = 0.402).
Babar et al., 2012 [24] Pakistan Experimenta: 50
Randomized controlled trials 29 (+6 age)
(Range 18 to 40 years)
Blum’s criteria 0.2%
CHX gel + (ibuprofen 400 mg)
No treatment
+ ibuprofen 400 mg)
4 cases with alveolar osteitis 14 cases with alveolar osteitis A single application of CHX gel was effective in reducing frequency of alveolar osteitis following mandibular third molar surgery.
Khan et al., 2015 [29] USA Experimental: 128
Randomized clinical trial
36.65 (±11 year) Blum’s criteria Visual Analog Scale (VAS), 0.2%CHX gel Placebo gel 7 cases with alveolar osteitis 23 cases with alveolar osteitis Therefore, application of CHX in generalized
Is recommended.
Freudenthal, 2015 [23] Sweden expermental48
Double-blinded randomized 19 to 65 years: age range
33 years (SD, 10.3 years)
Blum’s criteria 0.2% CHX gel Placebo gel 11 cases with alveolar osteitis 9 cases with alveolar osteitis Did not verify that application of CHX gel improves healing
Passi and Shekhar, 2013 [25] Lucknow, U.P expermental:40
Clinical trial NA Blum’s criteria 0.2%CHX gel
Amoxacilline/clavulanic acid, Metronidazole
0.9% normal saline 1 case with alveolar osteitis 3 cases with alveolar osteitis Reduce the incidence of alveolar osteitis after the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars by approximately30-40%.
Shaban et al., 2014 [21] Iran expermental: 41
Clinical Trial
24.15 ± 5.02
Age range : 18–35
Blum’s criteria 0.2% CHX gel No 2 cases with alveolar osteitis 9 cases with alveolar osteitis The frequency of alveolar osteitis was significantly lower in sockets receiving the CHX gel in comparison to control sockets (RR = 0.22, 95%CI:0.06–0.71)
Rubio-Palau et al., 2015 [19] Spain expermenta:80
Clinical Trial
25.04 mean age Blum’s criteria 0.2% CHX gel Bioadhesive placebo 14 cases with alveolar osteitis 18 cases with alveolar osteitis Reduced the frequency of AO by 22.22% compared to the control group
Ahmedi et al., 2014 [22] Kosovo expermental:25
A randomized
  Blum’s criteria 1% CHX gel Saline solution 1 case with alveolar osteitis 7 cases with alveolar osteitis The application of CHX gel 1% may significantly reduce the incidence of DS following third molar extraction.
Inamdar et al.,
2015 [26]
India expermental:20
Comparative Randomized Prospective Study   Blum’s
10 patients receive CHX gel;
10 patients revive ornidazole gel
No treatment 1 case with alveolar osteitis 2 cases with alveolar osteitis The incidence of avolar osteitis is significantly less on placement of CHX gel
Haraji et al., 2013 [20] Iran Expermental : 40
Double-blinded split-mouth randomized study 18–45 years
(Age range)
21.6 ± 2.5 years
Blum’s standardized criteria 0.2% CHX gel Placebo Gel 9 cases with alveolar osteitis 26 cases with alveolar osteitis Single-dose intra-alveolar application of CHX gel can reduce dry socket incidence.