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Table 3 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The microbial changes in subgingival plaques of orthodontic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

Author/
Year
Study
design
Sample size Average age Samplesite Orthodontic appliance (bracket or band) Sample collection time Collection method Microbial analysis method Periodontal pathogens analyzed Analysis based on subject or tooth Microbiological outcome
Martha et al. 2016 Controlled Clinical Trials Group A 15 Group B 10 Group A 14.4±2.45 y
Group B 15.7±1.87 y
16/26/36/46 Group A
Band
Group B
Bracket
Before appliance placement
After 4–7 weeks
Sterile
paper
points
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/ Td/Fn/Cr/E c/En/Pm/C.s
p
Subject Frequency of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaques
Guo et al. 2016 Controlled Clinical Trials Group A (adults) 46
Group B (children) 62
Group A 18–32y
Group B 8–15y
35/34/31/41/44/45 Bracket Before appliance placement
After 1 month
After 3 months
Not
mentioned
PCR Pg/Fn/Pi/Tf Subject The percentage contents and detective amount of periodontal pathogens
Yáñez- Vico et al. 2015 Cohort study Experimental group 61
Control group 61
21.3 ± 5.6y 15/14/34/11/45 Bracket 10 days before bracket
removal
10 days after bracket
removal
Sterile
paper
point
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/
Td
Subject Prevalence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaques
Amezquita et al. 2006 Cohort study Experimental group 30
Control group 30
Experimental group 18.7y
Control group 19.3 y
15/25/12/22/35/45 Bracke Before appliance placement
After 3 months
Sterile
paper
points
Culture
methods
Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/ Pn/Fs/Ec Subject Frequency detection of periodontal pathogens in patients
Choi et al. 2009 Cohort study Experimental group 30
Control group 30
Experimental
group 20.0± 7.3y
Control group 16.7±7.5 y
21/31/26/36 Incisor
(bracket)
Molar
(band)
2 weeks before appliance
removal
3 months after appliance
removal
Sterile
paper
points
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/
Td/Pn/Cr/E
c
Tooth Frequency of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaques
Zivkovic
Sandicet al. 2014
Selfcontrolled study Group A 14 Group B 19 19.7y (12–36) 11/16 Bracket Group A:
Before appliance placement
After 1 month
After 3 months
Group B:
Before appliance removal
After 1 month
After 3 months
Sterile
paper
points
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf Tooth Frequency of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaques
Kim et al. 2012 Selfcontrolled study 30 16.7±6.5 y 21/31/26/36 Incisor
(bracket)
Molar
(band)
Before appliance placement
After 1 week
After 3 months
After 6 months
Sterile
paper
points
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/ Td/Pn/Cr/E
c
Tooth Frequency of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaques
Liu et al. 2011 Selfcontrolled study Group A 28 Group B 20 Group A 17.6±5.68y
Group B 17.8±4.49 y
15/13/11/21/33/31/41/45 Bracket Group A:
Before appliance placement
After 1 month
After 3 months
Group B:
Before appliance removal
After 1 month
After3 months
After 6 months
Sterile
dental
curette
PCR Pg Subject Frequency of Pg in subgingival plaques
LoBue et al. 2008 Selfcontrolled study 10 13.1y 16/26/36/46 Not
mentioned
Before appliance placement
After 2 weeks
After 4 weeks
After 12 weeks
Sterile
paper
points
Culture
methods
17
periodontalpathogens
Subject Microorganism isolates from subgingival plaque sites
Paolantonio et al. 1999 Selfcontrolled study 24 18–22y 16/26/12/22 or 32/42/36/46 Lateral
incisor
(bracket)
Molar
(band)
Before appliance placement
After 4 weeks
After 8 weeks
After 12 weeks
4 weeks after appliance
removal
Sterile
paper
points
Culture
methods
Aa Subject Frequency of Aa in
subgingival plaques
Thornberg et al. 2009 Selfcontrolled study 190 13.6y 16/11/24/36/31/44 Not
mentioned
Before appliance placement
After 6 months
After 12 months
After more than 12 months
3 months after appliance
removed
Sterile
paper
points
DNA
probe
technique
Aa/Pg/Pi/Tf/ Td/Fn/Cr/E
c
Subject Percentages of subjects with high pathogen counts
Sallumet al. 2004 Selfcontrolled study 10 16±1.8y 16/26/11 Not
mentioned
Before appliance removal
After 1 month
Sterile
dental
curette
PCR Aa/Pg/Pi/Pn
/Bf
Subject Number of sites positive for subgingival microorganisms
Ristic et al. 2008 Selfcontrolled study 32 12–18y 16/21/24 Incisor and
premolar
(bracket)
Molar(band)
Before appliance placement
After 1 month
After 3 months
After 6months
Sterile
paper
points
Culture
methods
Pi Tooth site Frequency of Pi in subgingival plaques