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Table 3 Oral hygiene and dietary habits among migrant children in 2011 and 2013 (n =1042)

From: Oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices among rural–urban migrant children in Guangzhou: a follow-up study

  2011 \( \left(\overline{x}\pm \mathrm{s}\right) \) 2013 \( \left(\overline{x}\pm \mathrm{s}\right) \) Change \( \left(\overline{x}\pm \mathrm{s}\right) \) p-value a
Oral hygiene
Total score 13.98 ± 2.25 14.30 ± 2.19 0.32 ± 2.72 <0.001
Can each family member have their own toothbrush and cup? 3.37 ± 0.87 3.58 ± 0.71 0.21 ± 1.02 <0.001
 Yes 56.14% 67.37%   
 Sharing cup 31.48% 26.30%   
 Sharing toothbrush 5.66% 3.07%   
 Sharing toothbrush and cup 6.72% 3.26%   
Which manner are you using to brush your teeth every day? 3.09 ± 1.13 3.29 ± 1.09 0.20 ± 1.42 <0.001
 Casual brushing 13.82% 11.90%   
 Vertical brushing 12.48% 8.64%   
 Horizontal brushing 18.42% 13.34%   
 Vertical brushing with horizontal vibration 55.28% 66.12%   
How long each time do you brush your teeth? 2.57 ± 0.97 2.68 ± 0.92 0.11 ± 1.21 0.004
 Less than one minute 14.59% 9.88%   
 1-2 minutes 34.64% 33.78%   
 2-3 minutes 30.23% 35.12%   
 More than three minutes 20.54% 21.22%   
Do you rinse your mouth after a meal? 1.56 ± 0.50 1.59 ± 0.49 0.02 ± 0.62 0.213
 Yes 56.33% 58.73%   
 No 43.67% 41.27%   
How many times do you brush teeth each day? 3.38 ± 0.78 3.17 ± 0.76 −0.21 ± 1.01 <0.001
 None 1.63% 0.78%   
 Once 13.44% 19.58%   
 Twice 29.94% 41.94%   
 Three times or more 54.99% 38.00%   
Dietary habits
Total score 10.33 ± 2.33 10.61 ± 2.15 0.28 ± 2.62 0.001
How often do you eat chocolate pie or cream cake? 1.96 ± 0.74 2.08 ± 0.66 0.12 ± 0.91 <0.001
 Always eat 29.27% 18.33%   
 Sometimes eat 45.59% 55.66%   
 Rarely eat 25.14% 26.01%   
How often do you eat carbonated beverage? 2.00 ± 0.73 2.10 ± 0.65 0.10 ± 0.84 <0.001
 Always eat 26.58% 16.31%   
 Sometimes eat 47.22% 57.39%   
 Rarely eat 26.20% 26.30%   
How often do you eat cheese? 2.19 ± 0.73 2.25 ± 0.72 0.06 ± 0.92 0.026
 Always eat 19.19% 16.22%   
 Sometimes eat 43.09% 42.71%   
 Rarely eat 37.72% 41.07%   
How often do you eat candy? 2.16 ± 0.71 2.20 ± 0.63 0.04 ± 0.84 0.113
 Always eat 18.81% 11.90%   
 Sometimes eat 46.55% 56.24%   
 Rarely eat 34.64% 31.86%   
How often do you eat ice cream or butter? 2.03 ± 0.72 1.98 ± 0.68 −0.05 ± 0.90 0.106
 Always eat 24.57% 24.09%   
 Sometimes eat 48.18% 53.65%   
 Rarely eat 27.25% 22.26%   
  1. aMarginal Homogeneity Test