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Table 5 Effect of the studied variables upon the lingual appliance

From: Are there differences in treatment effects between labial and lingual fixed orthodontic appliances? A systematic review and meta-analysis

  U1-SN L1-MP U1-L1/IIA SN-MP SNB Me-N
Fulmer and Kuftinec 1989a [40] NA NA + NA NA NA
Gorman and Smith 1991 [9]
Gimenez et al. 2010a [18] NA NA NA NA NA NA
Soldanova et al. 2012 [7] NA NA NA NA NA NA
Wang et al. 2014 [31] NA NA NA NA NA NA
Deguchi et al. 2015 [8] + +
Bock et al. 2016a [44] NA NA NA NA NA
  1. NA not available; +: Significant difference (p < 0.05); −: Nonsignificant (p > 0.05)
  2. aStudies excluded during the search process. See Fig. 1 for reasons for exclusion