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Table 2 Overview of included studies

From: The effectiveness of vibrational stimulus to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review

Study ID Study design Origin Participants description grouping Vibration device Type of tooth movement
Miles (2012) [16] RCT Australia n = 66; F:40; M:26; Age:11–15 E:M:12;F:21;Age:13.0 ± 0.18y; C:M:14; F:19;Age:13.1 ± 0.18y Tooth Masseuse (111 Hz, 0.06 N) Alignment of the 6 mandibular anterior teeth (3–3)
Pavlin (2015) [23] RCT USA n = 45; Age:12–40 E:n = 23; C:n = 22 AcceleDent (30 Hz, 0.25 N) Retraction of maxillary canine or maxillary anterior teeth (3–3).
Woodhouse (2015a) [18]a RCT UK and Germany n = 81; M:40, F:41. Age: 14.06 ± 1.7y E:n = 29; Age: 13.9 ± 1.6y Sham: n = 25; Age: 14.1 ± 1.9y C: n = 27; Age: 14.4 ± 1.8y AcceleDent (30 Hz, 0.25 N) Alignment of the mandibular arch in comprehensive treatment
Woodhouse (2015b) [17]a RCT UK and Germany n = 81; M:40, F:41. Age: 14.1 ± 1.7y E:n = 29;M:15, F:14; Age: 13.9 ± 1.6y Sham: n = 25; M: 13, F:12 Age:13.8 ± 1.7y C: n = 27; M:12, F:15; Age: 14.4 ± 1.9y AcceleDent (30 Hz, 0.25 N) Alignment of the mandibular arch in comprehensive treatment
Leethanakul (2016) [20] CCT Thailand n = 15; M:4; F:11 Age:19-25y Split-mouth design, the experimental tooth (right or left) was determined randomly. A electronic toothbrush (Colgate) with a vibrating head (125 Hz) Retraction of maxillary canines after complete alignment.
Lobre (2016) [21] RCT USA N = 58 E:n = 29 C:n = 29 AcceleDent(30 Hz, 0.25 N) Alignment in comprehensive treatment
Miles (2016) [22] RCT Australia n = 40; M:14; F:26 Age:12.8 ± 1.3y E:M:6; F:14; Age: 12.7 ± 1.2y C:M:8; F:12; Age: 13.0 ± 1.5y AcceleDent(30 Hz, 0.25 N) Alignment of the 6 mandibular anterior teeth (3–3)
DiBiase (2016) [19]a RCT UK and Germany n = 81; E:n = 29 Sham: n = 25 C: n = 27 AcceleDent (30 Hz, 0.25 N) Alignment in comprehensi9ve treatment
  1. aThe three publications are different parts of a same clinical trial
  2. E experimental (vibration) group, C control group