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Table 8 Occurrence of TMD (long-term)

From: Effect of protraction facemask on the temporomandibular joint: a systematic review

Study Outcome Long-term effect (3y)
Mandall 2012 Percentage of TMJ signs and symptoms In PFM group, 0% had lateral TMJ pain, intra-articular pain, locking, loss of movement (maximum mouth opening, lateral movement), or temporalis spasm; 11% had Clicking; 14.1% had crepitus; 3.1% had masseter spasm, or lateral pterygoid spasm; In control group, 1.4% had lateral TMJ pain, or intra-articular pain; 5.6% had clicking, or lateral pterygoid spasm; 9.7% had crepitus; 2.8% had locking, or masseter spasm; 0% had loss of movement (maximum mouth opening, lateral movement), or temporalis spasm.