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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A comparison of treatment effectiveness between clear aligner and fixed appliance therapies

Author (Year) Country Study design Clinicians Inclusion criteria Patients number (male/female) Mean age Intervention Comparison
Aligner Brace Aligner Brace
Djeu (2005) [10] America Retrospective cohort study Certified orthodontists Nonextraction patients. Two groups had similar discrepancy index scores before treatment. 48 (UK) 48 (UK) 33.6 ± 11.8 23.7 ± 11.0 Invisalign® Tip-edge braces
Kuncio (2007) [13] America Retrospective cohort study Certified orthodontists Nonextraction patients. Two groups had similar distributions of gender, ethnicity, age, retainer wear, treatment, and posttreatment length. 11 (1/10) 11 (1/10) 33.97± 8.98 26.79 ± 12.12 Invisalign® Tip-edge braces
Pavoni (2011) [15] Italy Prospective cohort study Orthodontists Nonextraction patients. Class I malocclusion; mild crowding; vertebral maturation. 20 (8/12) 20 (11/9) 18.33 15.50 Invisalign® Self-ligation braces
Li (2015) [17] China Randomized controlled trial Orthodontists Extraction patients. Class I malocclusion; severity in complexity with discrepancy index score of 25. 76 (27/45) 76 (27/45) 35.2±7.3 32.2 ± 8.3 Invisalign® 3 M Unitek braces
Grunheid [14] America Retrospective cohort study Orthodontic specialists Nonextraction patients. Class I malocclusion; no periodontal attachment loss. 30 (8/22) 30 (8/22) 25.0± 11.8 26.3 ± 13.5 Invisalign® Preadjusted edgewise braces
Hennessy (2016) [16] Ireland Randomized controlled trial Postgraduate students Nonextraction patients. Mild crowding; skeletal class I malocclusion. 20 (6/14) 20 (7/13) 29.1± 7.5 23.7 ± 7.0 Invisalign® Preadjusted edgewise braces
Gu (2017) [12] America Retrospective cohort study Orthodontic faculty and residents Nonextraction patients. 48 (16/32) 48 (18/30) 26.0± 9.7 22.1 ± 7.9 Invisalign® Straight-wire edgewise braces
Lanteri (2018) [11] Italy Retrospective cohort study UK Nonextraction patients. Two groups had similar dental crowding and PAR index scores before treatment. 100 (30/70) 100 (30/70) 28± 10 25± 10 Invisalign® Straight-wire edgewise braces (MBT prescription)
  1. PAR Peer Assessment Rating; UK Unknown