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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics by trajectory and growth Rrate for 485 children in the Hong Kong “Children of 1997” birth cohort

From: Association of infant growth with emergence of permanent dentition among 12 year-aged southern Chinese school children

Characteristics Trajectory Mean Growth Rate (SD)
I II III IV V 0–3 3–12
(n = 81) (n = 114) (n = 102) (n = 100) (n = 88) Months Months
Erupted permanent tooth number; mean (SD) 26.3(2.0) 25.8(3.0) 26.3(2.7) 26.4(2.4) 26.6(1.9)   
Complete emergencea
 Yes 43.2 43.0 54.9 47.0 51.1 0.11 (0.91)* 0.02 (0.77)
 No 56.8 57.0 45.1 53.0 48.9 0.37 (0.85)* − 0.08 (0.64)
Gendera
 Female 61.7 51.8 45.1 52.0 42.0 0.27 (0.89) 0.03 (0.63)
 Male 38.3 48.2 54.9 48.0 58.0 0.33 (0.95) −0.04 (0.79)
Weight for age z-score; mean (SD)
 Birth* −0.70 (0.99) − 0.66 (0.75) − 0.19 (0.64) 0.24 (0.63) 0.51 (0.90)   
 3 months* −0.92 (0.57) −0.40 (0.38) 0.40 (0.67) 0.31 (0.40) 1.06 (0.64)   
 12 months* −1.14 (0.50) −0.31 (0.44) 0.52 (0.33) 0.02 (0.35) 1.19 (0.67)   
Gestational age (weeks)a
 37* 14.8 9.6 11.8 2.0 1.1 0.83 (0.98) 0.04 (0.70)
 38* 19.8 27.2 25.5 15.0 22.7 0.38 (1.00) 0.14 (0.79)
 39* 38.3 29.8 29.4 29.0 23.9 0.21 (0.82) −0.05 (0.65)
 40* 14.8 26.3 24.5 34.0 29.5 0.22 (0.82) −0.20 (0.62)
  ≥ 41* 12.3 7.0 8.8 20.0 22.7 −0.16 (0.71) 0.01 (0.74)
Mode of deliverya
 Natural labour 56.8 55.3 42.2 57.0 55.7 0.29 (0.89) −0.07 (0.65)
 Assisted natural labour 16.0 16.7 30.4 17.2 21.6 0.17 (0.98) 0.13 (0.81)
 Caesarean birth 23.5 24.6 23.5 25.0 19.3 0.42 (0.92) −0.01 (0.74)
 Unknown 3.7 3.5 3.9 1.0 3.4 0.36 (0.92) 0.19 (0.74)
With congenital conditionsa
 Yes 2.5 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 −0.96 (0.50)* 0.12 (0.53)
 No 97.5 100.0 100.0 97.0 100.0 0.31 (0.92)* −0.01 (0.71)
Type of feedinga
 Never breastfed 56.8 56.1 49.0 53.0 56.8 0.25 (0.81) −0.02 (0.67)*
 Exclusively breastfed 3 months or partially breastfed 28.4 36.0 40.2 39.0 37.5 0.36 (1.09) 0.04 (0.75)*
 Exclusively breastfed for 3 months or more 13.6 6.1 7.8 8.0 4.5 0.51 (0.78) −0.25 (0.80)*
 Unknown 1.2 1.8 2.9 0 1.1 −0.03 (0.88) 0.43 (0.52)*
Highest parental educationa
  ≤ 9th grade 33.3 35.1 24.5 32.0 29.5 0.24 (0.92) −0.09 (0.71)
 10th - 11th grade 42.0 42.1 48.0 46.0 45.5 0.36 (0.85) −0.03 (0.64)
  ≥ 12th grade 23.5 21.9 24.5 21.0 22.7 0.29 (1.05) 0.12 (0.84)
 Unknown 1.2 0.9 2.9 1.0 2.3 0.06 (0.85) −0.01 (0.77)
  1. a%, unless otherwise indicated
  2. *p < 0.05: weight-for-age z-score at birth, weight-for-age z-score at 3 months, weight-for-age z-score at 12 months, and gestational age among different trajectories; growth rates from birth to 3 months between children with and without complete tooth emergence at 12 years old, with or without congenital conditions, and among different gestational ages; and, growth rates from 3 m to 12 months among different gestational ages and type of breast feeding