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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Disease severity, debridement approach and timing of drug modify outcomes of adjunctive azithromycin in non-surgical management of chronic periodontitis: a multivariate meta-analysis

Author/Year n/ Country n (Female/Male) Age (years) Project Design Intervention Methodology Nature of S/RSD Intervention Groups Follow-Up Periodontal Maintenance Adverse Events
Mascarenhas et al. 2005 [28] 30/ USA AZI: 15 (4/11) C: 15 (7/8) AZI: 47.0 ± 10.1 C: 45.3 ± 10.8 Parallel, Single Blinded AZI: Post therapy, End of S/RSD, in 2 sessions within 14 days C: S/RSD in 2 sessions within 14 days. Qu S/RSD(2 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 1 day + 250 g × 4 days C: S/RSD 3, 6 months from baseline 3rd, 6th months by examiner Not reported
Gomi et al. 2007 [25] 34/ Japan AZI: 17 (9/8) C: 17 (9/8) AZI: 45.4 ± 14.3, C: 51.0 ± 8.8, not described AZI: Pre-therapy, 3 days prior to S/RSD C: S/RSD in 4–6 times, weekly intervals FMD AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: S/RSD 1, 3, 6 months from baseline Weekly by Dental Hygienist Diarrhoea (n = 1)
Haffajee et al. 2007 [32] 48/ USA AZI: 25 (10/15), C: 23 (7/16) AZI:47 ± 14, C:43 ± 15 Parallel. Single Blinded AZI: Pretherapy, Start of Quadrant Wise S/RSD C: S/RSD in 4 weekly intervals Qu S/RSD (4 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: S/RSD 1, 3, 6, 12 months from baseline 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months Difficulty in swallowing (n = 1) Allergic reaction (n = 1)
Yashima et al. 2009 [27] 30/ Japan AZI 1: 10 (6/4), AZI 2: 10 (5/5), C: 10 (4/6) AZI 1: 51.1 ± 11.6, AZI 2: 50.8 ± 14.2, C: 51.0 ± 10.6 not described AZI 1: Pre therapy 3 days prior to S/RSD (Full Mouth) AZI 2: Pre therapy 3 days prior to S/RSD. Conducted in 3 times, within 7 days C: S/RSD in 6 sessions with 1 week interval FMD Qu S/RSD (3 sessions) AZI 1: 500 g × 3 days AZI 2: 500 g × 3 days C: S/RSD 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months from baseline Once a month by the Dental Hygienist Diarrhoea (n = 1)
Oteo et al. 2010 [30] 28/ Spain AZI: 15 (8/7), C: 13 (5/8) AZM: 46.6, C: 7.1 Parallel, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled. AZI: Post therapy, End of S/RSD in 2 times, within 7 days C: S/RSD in 2 times, within 7 days. Qu S/RSD –(2 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: Placebo ×  3 days 1, 3, 6 months from baseline 1st, 3rd, 6th months Diarrhoea n = 1)
Sampaio et al. 2011 [34] 40/ Brazil AZI: 20 (7/13), C: 20 (9/11) AZI: 44.4 ± 7.42, C: 43.5 ± 5.90 Parallel, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled AZI: Post therapy, End of S/RSD in 4–6 times, within 14 days C: S/RSD in 4–6 sessions within 14 days Qu S/RSD (4–6 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 5 days C: Placebo ×  3 days 6, 12 months from baseline Not reported Diarrhoea (n = 1); Excessive Sleepiness (n = 3) Headache (n = 1)
Han et al. 2012 [33] 28/ Turkey AZI: 14 (4/10), C: 14 (6/8) AZI: 46.8 ± 5.1 C: 44.8 ± 5.0 Parallel, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled AZI: Post therapy, End of quadrant by quadrant S/RSD in 4 sessions C: Quadrant by quadrant S/RSD in 4 sessions Qu S/RSD (4 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: Placebo ×  3 days 1, 3, 6 months from baseline Not Reported None
Fonseca et al. 2015 [29] 85/ Brazil AZI 1: 15, C 1: 15 AZI 2: 14, C 2: 13 44.6 ± 8.8 Parallel, double blinded AZI 1: Pretherapy, Start of full mouth S/RSD. C 1: Full mouth S/RSD within 24 h in 2 sessions. AZI 2: Pretherapy, Start of quadrant S/RSD. C 2: S/RSD per quadrant for 30 min in weekly interval between sessions 1. FMD (2 sessions in 24 h) 2. Qu S/RSD (4 weekly sessions) AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: S/RSD alone 3, 6 months from baseline Not reported None
Martande et al. 2016 [31] 70/ India AZI: 35 (14/21), C: 35 (16/19) AZI: 33.3 ± 7.3 C: 32.6 ± 5.4 Parallel, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled AZI: Post-therapy End of S/RSD in 3–5 times within 14 days. C: S/RSD in 3–5 times within 14 days Qu S/RSD (3–5 sessions) AZI: 500 g × 3 days C: Placebo ×  3 days 1, 3, 6, 12 months from baseline 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th week
  1. AZI Test group: Azithromycin + S/ RSD Group. C Control Group; SRSD alone, FMD Full mouth debridement, PMD Partial Mouth S/RSD,
  2. (studies are ordered by year of publication)