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Table 2 Major clinical outcomes of included studies

From: Disease severity, debridement approach and timing of drug modify outcomes of adjunctive azithromycin in non-surgical management of chronic periodontitis: a multivariate meta-analysis

Author/Year Clinical Attachment Level Probing depth
Mascarenhas et al. 2005 [28] Baseline Study Mean: 3.87 mm
CAL gain in shallow pocket, 6 month: Control - 0.11 mm; AZI - 0.55
mm (p < 0.05)
CAL gain in moderate pockets, 6 month: Control − 1.52 mm (p < 0.05); AZI − 1.01 mm (p < 0.05).
CAL gain in deep pockets, 6 months: Control - 1.32 mm (p < 0.05); AZI - 2.56 mm (p < 0.05), Between group difference: p < 0.05
Baseline Study Mean: 4.47 mm
PPD reduction in shallow pocket, 6 month: Control: 0.02 mm; AZI: 0.43 mm (p < 0.05),
PPD reduction in moderate pocket,, 6 month: Control: 1.0 mm (p < 0.05); AZI: 1.7 mm(p < 0.05). Between group difference: p < 0.05
PPD reduction in deep pocket,, 6 month: Control: 1.98 mm (p < 0.05); AZI: 3.52 mm (p < 0.05), Between group difference: p < 0.05
Gomi et al. 2007 [25] Baseline Study Mean: 7.73 mm
Control: Baseline: 7.21 ± 1.37 mm; 25 weeks: 5.74 ± 0.96 mm
AZI: Baseline: 7.47 ± 1.96 mm; 25 weeks: 4.85 ± 1.05 mm.
Between group difference: P > 0.05 at 13 and 25 weeks
Baseline Study Mean: 4.11 mm
Control group: Baseline: 4.05 ± 0.68 mm; 25 weeks: 3.30 ± 0.36 mm
AZI: Baseline: 3.98 ± 1.06 mm; 25 weeks: 2.36 ± 0.76 mm
Between group difference: P < 0.001 at 13 and 25 weeks
Haffajee et al. 2007 [32] Baseline Study Mean: 3.2 mm
CAL gain: 6 months- Control:0.12 ± 0.15, AZI: 0.17 ± 0.12 (p < 0.05)
Baseline Study Mean: 3.01 mm
PPD reduction: 6 months- Control: 0.45 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05), AZI: 0.103 ± 0.11 (p < 0.0001)
Yashima et al. 2009 [27]
(FMD)
Baseline Study Mean: 3.99 mm
Between FMD test control group difference: P < 0.01 at 1, 3, 6 months and P < 0.05 at 9 and 12 months
Between PMD test control group difference: P < 0.01 at 1 month, P < 0.05 at 6, 9 and 12 months
Baseline Study Mean: 5.08 mm
Between FMD test and control groups: P < 0.05 at 6, 9 and 12 months
Between PMD test and control groups: P < 0.05 at 6, 9 and 12 months
Oteo et al. 2010 [30] Baseline Study Mean: 3.51 mm
CAL gain: 6 months- Control:0.29 mm(P > 0.05), AZI:0.76 mm(P = 0.004)
Between group difference: P = 0.016 at 6 months
Baseline Study Mean: 2.92 mm
PPD reduction: 6 month-Control: 0.34 mm (p < 0.05), AZI: 0.8 mm (p < 0.05)
Between group difference: P = 0.009
Sampaio et al. 2011 [34] Baseline Study Mean: 5.63 mm
CAL gain at 1 year: Control: 2.35 ± 1.70, AZI: 2.68 ± 1.76,
Between group difference P > 0.05
Baseline Study Mean: 4.92 mm
PPD reduction at 1 year: Control: 3.83 ± 1.92, AZI: 3.45 ± 1.74
Between group difference P > 0.05
Han et al. 2012 [33] Baseline Study Mean: 5.5 mm
CAL gain in shallow pockets:
1 month-Control: 1.36 ± 0.5 mm; AZI: 1.47 ± 0.3 mm, 3 months-Control: 1.48 ± 0.6, AZI: 1.58 ± 0.4 mm, 6 months- Control:1.54 ± 0.5 mm, AZI: 1.55 ± 0.5 mm.
CAL gain in moderate pockets:
1 month- Control: 0.33 ± 0.2 mm, AZI: 0.34 ± 0.2 mm, 3 months- Control: 0.31 ± 0.2 mm, AZI: 0.43 ± 0.3 mm 6 months-Control: 0.39 ± 0.4 mm, AZI: 0.34 ± 0.2 mm.
CAL gain in deep pockets:
1 month- Control: 1.15 ± 2.3 mm; AZI: 1.99 ± 3.0 mm, 3 months- Control: 0.49 ± 0.7 mm, AZI: 1.25 ± 1.9 mm 6 months-Control: 0.54 ± 0.5 mm, AZI: 2.25 ± 3.1 mm.
Oveall: P < 0.05 for Control and AZI both
Baseline Study Mean: 3.93 mm
PPD reduction in shallow pockets:
1 month-Control: 1.44 ± 0.5 mm; AZI: 1.56 ± 0.4 mm, 3 months-Control: 1.54 ± 0.4 mm, AZI: 1.79 ± 0.4 mm, 6 months- Control: 4.45 ± 0.5 mm, AZI: 1.81 ± 0.5 mm
PPD reduction in moderate pockets:
1 month- Control: 2.28 ± 0.3 mm, AZI: 2.18 ± 0.2 mm, 3 months- Control: 2.30 ± 0.3 mm, AZI: 2.23 ± 0.3 mm, 6 months-Control: 2.46 ± 0.3 mm, AZI: 2.32 ± 0.4 mm
PPD reduction in deep pockets:
1 month- Control: 4.11 ± 0.5 mm, AZI: 4.34 ± 0.9 mm, 3 months- Control: 4.16 ± 0.4 mm, AZI: 4.46 ± 0.8 mm, 6 months-Control: 0.39 ± 0.4 mm, AZI: 4.88 ± 1.1 mm
Overall: P < 0.05 for Control and AZI both
Fonseca et al. 2015 [29] FMD
Control: Baseline 2.39 ± 0.99 mm. 3 month: 2.17 ± 0.77 mm, 6 month 2.20 ± 0.74 mm at 180 days
AZI: Baseline 2.73 ± 1.15 mm, 3 month: 2.68 ± 1.14 mm, 6 month- 2.61 ± 1.15 mm
PMD
Control: Baseline: 2.6 ± 1.19 mm. 3 month: 2.46 ± 1.11 mm, 6 month-2.41 ± 1.04 mm
AZI: Baseline: 2.38 ± 0.79 mm, 3 month: 2.27 ± 0.71 mm, 6 month- 2.25 ± 0.72 mm
P < 0.05 at 3 months for control and AZI
FMD
Control group: Baseline 2.27 ± 0.60 mm, 3 month- 2.09 ± 0.52 mm, 6 month- 2.08 ± 0.52 mm
AZI: Baseline 2.20 ± 0.41 mm, 3 month- 2.11 ± 0.41 mm, 6 month- 1.93 ± 0.42 mm
PMD
Control: Baseline: 2.20 ± 0.55 mm, 3 month: 1.98 ± 0.54 mm, 6 month:1.93 ± 0.47 mm
AZI: Baseline: 2.31 ± 0.4 mm, 3 month- 2.21 ± 0.40 mm, 6 month- 2.18 ± 0.40 mm
Martande et al. 2016 [31] Baseline Study Mean: 7.76 mm
Control group: Baseline 7.63 ± 1.42 mm; 1 month- 6.80 ± 1.32, 3 month − 6.40 ± 1.06 mm, 6 month 6.06 ± 1.11 mm, 12 month-5.91 ± 1.09 mm
AZI: Baseline 7.69 ± 1.02 mm; 1 month- 6.69 ± 1.17, 3 month- 5.54 ± 0.89 mm, 6 month- 5.16 ± 1.10 mm, 12 month- 4.97 ± 1.18 mm
Between group difference: 3 months (P < 0.0005), 6 months (P = 0.0013), 12 months (P = 0.0009).
Baseline Study Mean: 6.66 mm
Control group; Baseline 6.74 ± 1.40 mm; 1 month- 6.00 ± 1.29, 3 month- 5.57 ± 1.17 mm, 6 month- 5.43 ± 1.24 mm, 12 month- 5.23 ± 0.73 mm.
AZI: Baseline 6.57 ± 0.85 mm; 1 month- 5.29 ± 1.05, 3 month- 4.46 ± 0.92 mm, 6 month- 3.74 ± 0.78 mm, 12 month-3.66 ± 0.73 mm.
Between group difference: 1 month (P = 0.0024), 3 months (P < 0.0001), 6 months (P < 0.0001), and 12 months (P < 0.0001)
  1. AZI Test group: Azithromycin + S/ RSD Group. C Control Group; SRSD alone, FMD Full mouth debridement, PMD Partial Mouth S/RSD,
  2. (studies are ordered by year of publication)