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Table 3 DMFT, Care index (CI) and Restorative index (RI) in CLD and CNLD (n = 25 studies; 20 studies with DMFT data and 16 with standard deviations reported). Studies where DMFT data couldn’t be used are shown in learning disability subgroup tables, with reasons why, but are not included in calculations data couldn’t be used are shown, with reasons why, but are not included in calculations. All data were calculated from the primary data reported in Additional file 1: Appendix 2

From: Dental caries experience, care index and restorative index in children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities; a systematic review and meta-analysis

Down syndrome (permanent teeth; n = 11 studies)
Study Number of participants Ages DMFT data
CLD CNLD CLD DMFT (sd) CNLD DMFT (sd) CLD CI CND CI CLD RI CNLD RI Reason no DMFT data included
Al Habashneh 2012 [15] 103 103 12–16 3.32 (3.77) 4.59 (4.21)      
AlSarheed 2015 [17] 93 99 7–15 2.66 (3.09) 3.11 (2.58) 0.18 0.18 0.22 0.19  
Areias 2013 [18] 45 45 6–18 1.02 (2.42) 1.84 (3.13) 0.16 0.02 0.27 0.04  
Cogulu 2006 [65] 73 70 7–12 0.92 4.26      
Cornejo 1996 [20, 67] 86 86 10–13 1.30 (0.30) 1.70 (0.40)      
Davidovich 2010 [21] 70 32 1–9 3.37 (0.56) 5.90 (0.8)      
Hashizume 2017 [25] 61 52 6–14 0.36 (1.00) 0.40 (0.92)      
Lee 2004 [61] 19 41 8–17        DMFS only
Mathias 2011 [27] 69 69 1–7 2.20 (6.30) 3.40 (8.10)      
Stabholz 1991 [63] 32 30 8–13        DMFS only
Subramaniam 2014 [29] 34 34 7–12 1.68 (0.69) 1.84 (1.12)      
Subgroup Total 685 661         
Mean (sd) 62.27 (±26.97) 60.09 (±26.90)   1.87 (±1.08) 2.49 (±1.42)