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Table 1 Adapted from Smack et al. [3]

From: Juxta-articular tumoral calcinosis associated with the temporomandibular joint: a case report and concise review

Classification Main demographic Familial patterns Common Sites Serum Electrolyte Level Clinical Presentation
Primary Normophosphatemic TC - Onset before 2nd decade (63%) - Mostly involve patients in tropical or subtropical regions - No sexual predilection - Nil familial pattern - Hip (31%) - Elbow (24%) - Knee (16%) - Normal serum phosphate - Normal serum calcium - Solitary calcification predominates (66%) - History of trauma - Milky fluid of calcification on incision are common
Primary Hyperphosphatemic TC - Onset before 2nd decade (82%) - No sexual predilection - Higher frequency in blacks and men - Strong familial pattern - Most patients are siblings (74%) - Hip (37%) - Elbow (27%) - Shoulder (23%) - Elevated serum phosphate - Elevated serum calcium - Multiple calcifications predominate (74%) - Milky fluid of calcification on incision in all cases reviewed
Secondary TC - Onset before 2nd decade (51%) - Higher frequency in whites and women - Chronic renal failure is the most common identifiable condition - Some familial pattern - Hip (29%) - Elbow (24%) - Shoulder (17%) - Elevated serum calcium - Multiple calcifications predominate (80%) - Milky fluid of calcification on incision in all cases reviewed