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Table 2 Outcomes of studies included in the network meta-analysis

From: Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis

First author, year Inclusion criteria of chronic periodontitis Method of HbA1c% determination Initial HbA1c (%)
(T vs. C)
Outcome (ΔHbA1c%)
(T vs. C)
Outcome (ΔFPG)
(T vs. C)
Follow up
(m)
Adverse events
(T vs. C)
Singh (2008) [25] Moderate to advanced periodontitis; at least 30% teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm Liquid chromatography method TA: 8.3 ± 0.7
TB: 7.9 ± 0.7
C: 8.08 ± 0.7
TA: 0.8 ± 0.66
TB: 0.6 ± 0.66
C: -0.02 ± 0.72
TA: 4.16 ± 11.55
TB: 4 ± 14.45
3 No
Gilowski (2012) [26] Periodontitis; at least four nonadjacent sites with PPD ≥ 4 mm Turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay T: 6.7 (6.3–7.0)
C: 6.2 (6.0–7.8)
T: 0 ± 0.9
C: 0.1 ± 1.41
  3 No
Moeintaghavi (2012) [27] Mild to moderate periodontitis (American Academy of Periodontology) Cobas Integra 700 apparatus (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) T: 8.15 ± 1.18
C: 8.72 ± 2.22
T: 0.74 ± 1.18
C: -0.25 ± 2.05
T: 17.5 ± 48.91
C: -9.78 ± 38.02
3 na
Gaikwad (2013) [28] Chronic generalized periodontitis na T: 8.38 ± 0.89
C: 8.06 ± 1.10
T: 1.38 ± 0.83
C: 0.95 ± 1.05
na 4 No
Pradeep (2013) [29] Chronic periodontitis; PPD ≥ 5 mm or CAL ≥ 4 mm and vertical bone loss ≥ 3mm on intraoral periapical radiographs na T: 6.66 ± 0.11
C: 6.71 ± 0.13
3m: T: 0.02 ± 0.12
C: 0.03 ± 0.13
6m: T: 0.01 ± 0.12
C:0.03 ± 0.13
9m: T: 0.03 ± 0.11
C: 0.05 ± 0.13
na 9 No
Santos (2013) [30] Generalized chronic periodontitis (Armitage 1999); at least 30% of sites with PPD and CAL ≥ 4 mm high-performance liquid chromatography T: 10 ± 2.41
C: 10.4 ± 2.9
3m: T: 0.78 ± 3.5
C: 0.68 ± 2.5
6m: T: 0.19 ± 2.9
C: 0.74 ± 4.1
12m: T: 0.35 ± 3.4
C: 1.4 ± 3.0
3m: T: 5.4 ± 65.09
C: 1.4 ± 77.31
6m: T: 5.5 ± 57.34
C: 15.4 ± 80.06
12m: T: 7.2 ± 72.37
C: 20.6 ± 79.15
12 T: 7, C: 12 reported taste
perception change/ dry mouth/ staining
Telgi (2013) [31] mild to moderate periodontitis; PD: 4 – 5 mm na TA: 7.68 ± 0.63
TB: 7.56 ± 0.59
C: 7.74 ± 0.59
TA: 0.58 ± 0.27
TB: 0.25 ± 0.14
C: 0.004 ± 0.12
TA: 2.88 ± 1.07
TB: 1.29 ± 0.53
C: 0.42 ± 0.71
3 na
Macedo (2014) [11] Chronic periodontitis, at least one site with PPD ≥ 5 mm on each quadrant, two teeth with CAL ≥ 6 mm automated immunoturbidimetric method T: 8.6 ± 1.1
C: 8.0 ± 0.93
T: 0.87 ± 0.9
C: 0.41 ± 0.84
na 3 No
Miranda (2014) [32] the sites with PPD and CAL ≥ 4 mm, a minimum of six teeth with at least one site with PPD and CAL ≥ 5 mm, BOP high-performance liquid chromatography T: 8.53 ± 1.56
C: 8.99 ± 1.63
3m: T: -0.07 ± 1.83
C: 0.05 ± 1.67
6m: T: 0.04 ± 1.94
C: -0.08 ± 1.66
12m: T: -0.24 ± 2.54
C: 0.59 ± 1.81
3m: T: 5.46 ±38.30
C: 8.71 ± 40.41
6m: T: 6.19 ±34.01
C: 5.95 ± 45.50
12m:T:1.59± 36.53
C: 6.9 ± 47.09
12 Diarrhea: T: 7, C:3
Headache: T: 4, C: 1
Metallic taste: T: 4, C: 2
Nausea/Vomiting:
T: 5, C: 2
Tsalikis (2014) [33] Moderate or advanced periodontitis; six pockets > 5mm, CAL > 3mm with radiographic bone loss A1CNow + Multitest HbA1c system T: 6.70 ± 0.61
C: 6.89 ± 0.60
3m: T: 0.08 ± 0.58
C: -0.07 ± 0.88
6m: T: 0.22 ± 0.67
C: 0.09 ± 0.77
na 6 C: 1 reported Dizziness and difficulty to swallow
Wu (2015) [34] mean CAL > 1mm (American Academy of Periodontology criteria) immunoturbidimetry T: 7.41 ± 0.20
C: 7.39 ± 0.16
3m: T: 0.01 ± 0.19
C: 0.01 ± 0.16
6m: T: 0.32 ± 0.17
C: 0.03 ± 0.17
na 6 na
Koçak (2016) [35] ≥ 8 sites with PPD ≥5mm na T: 6.9 ± 0.7
C: 6.5 ± 0.6
T: 0.41 ± 0.19
C: 0.22 ± 0.25
na 3 na
Kumari (2016) [10] Chronic periodontitis; PPD ≥ 5 mm or CAL ≥ 4 mm, and vertical bone loss ≥ 3 mm on intraoral periapical radiographs na T: 6.72 ± 0.13
C: 6.75 ± 0.12
3m: T: 0.04 ± 0.14
C: 0.03 ± 0.13
6m: T: 0.06 ± 0.13
C: 0.04 ± 0.13
9m: T: 0.07 ± 0.13
C: 0.06 ± 0.13
na 9 No
Ramos (2016) [36] At least one site with PPD ≥ 5 mm on each quadrant and two teeth with CAL ≥ 6 mm High pressure liquid chromatography T: 10.6 ± 1.99
C: 9.69 ± 1.68
T: 0.99 ± 1.00
C: 0.76 ± 0.73
na 3 No
  1. CAL clinical attachment loss, PPD probing pocket depth, BOP bleeding on probe, na not avail