Skip to main content


Table 1 Paediatric Dental Triadic Interaction Coding Scheme

From: Development of an interaction coding scheme (PaeD-TrICS) to record the triadic communication behaviours in preventive dental consultations with preschool child patients and families: a video-based observational study

BehaviourOperational definition
Adult behaviour:
Dental Professional (DP), Parent
 Social talkDP/Parent’s non-dentally related talk
 Information givingDP/Parent gives oral health/procedure related information.
 Information seeking (Questioning)DP/Parent asks for oral health/procedure related information.
 Joke/HumourDP makes joke/humour on the child that may include a laughter
 Child nameDP/parent calls child by name.
 Pet nameDP/parent calls child an endearing name
 DistractionDP/parent distracts the child by referring to a toy/painting etc.
 PraiseDP/parent makes positive comment on child’s behaviour or attitude
 ReassuranceDP/parent describes ease and pleasantness of treatment.
 Positive consequenceDP/parent informs child of positive outcome of treatment
 Negative consequenceDP/parent informs child of negative/lack of positive outcome if no treatment.
 Relate experienceDP relates child’s previous dental experience to the present procedure.
 InstructionDP gives the child instruction to carry out an action
 Permission seekingDP consults child for their consent to carry out an action
 RequestDP asks child to carry out an action
 Dentally engaging talkAny talks DP uses to get child engaged in the oral health related talk/treatment
 Tell-show-do talkDP uses tell-show-do technique to instruct child to carry out an action.
 RewardDP promises/gives child a reward, often dependent on behaviour.
 Offer for questionsDP offers parent to raise any questions/concerns about child oral health/procedure.
 Offer alternative taskDP offers child a lesser challenging task (‘Do you want to sit on mum’s knees?’)
 ExplanationDP explains to parent about child uncooperative behaviours which mostly is related to child developmental stage.
 Refer to community resourcesDP refers to available community resources for parent to access as part of Childsmile procedure.
 NV Touch directingDP physically directs or manoeuvres child’s body, limbs head or mouth.
 NV Touch playfulDP touches child with hands, brush, mirror etc. in a playful manner.
 NV Touch reassuringDP/parent uses touch to comfort child.
 NV PraiseDP/parent’s nonverbal behaviour to praise/encourage child
 NV Procedure demonstrationDP demonstrates to parent/child on dental related procedures (toothbrushing)
 Verbal facilitationParent helps DP or child to convey information for easier understanding to the third party.
 NV Procedure facilitationParent physically directs/manoeuvres child’s body to facilitate DP’s procedure.
Child behaviour
 Speech (yes)Child says ‘yes’
 Speech (no)Child says ‘No’
 Speech (other)Child says any other utterances except for ‘yes’ and ‘no’
 Dental talkChild says anything to reply DP’s oral health related question
 Crying/groaningVerbal sound suggesting pain, fear, upset.
 LaughVerbal sound suggesting enjoyment.
 NV Hide face/mouthChild covers face with arms or hands.
 NV Push away (hand)Child uses hand/s to push DP or instrument away.
 NV Sits up/moves awayChild sits up from lying on the dental chair; stands up (walks way) from sitting.
 NV WithdrawChild withdraws/hides behind/in adult’s body.
 NV AgreementChild conveys acceptance by non-verbal behaviours (nodding head).
 NV Shakes headChild conveys refusal/reluctance/disagreement to information/procedure.
 NV Turns headChild turns head away from DP or a normal position.
 NV Interact with instrumentChild holds or touches the instruments (brush, cotton wool, mirror, gloves).
 NV Toothbrushing demonstrationChild demonstrates toothbrushing to DP.
 NV PointingChild points to anything in the surgery to attraction parent’s attention.