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Table 3 Characteristics of the included animal model experiments

From: In vivo effectiveness and safety of probiotics on prophylaxis and treatment of oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author and publication year Strain Gender Age (week) Sample sizes Method of candida infection Probiotic species Method of drug administration Intervention time Control group Outcome indicators
Matsubara et al., 2012 [33] DBA/2 Male 6–8 152 The combination of L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus 0.2 ml suspension (109 probiotics) Start 2 weeks before Candida inoculation, qd, 27d Blank control Candida counts
Nystatin
Ishijima et al., 2012 [34] ICR Female 6 55 Candida cotton swab to wipe oral mucosa S. salivarius K12 0.05 ml suspension 24 h, 3 h before Candida inoculation, 3 h, 24 h, 27 h after Candida inoculation Blank control Candida counts, Oral infection score, Histology
Fluconazole
Elahi et al., 2005 [35] DBA/2, BALB/c (Test data not published) Male 6–8 25 Candida cotton swab to wipe oral mucosa The combination of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum 0.2 ml suspension (109 probiotics) Start 2 weeks before Candida inoculation, qd, 28d Blank control Candida counts, IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, NO
Ishijima et al., 2014 [36] ICR Female 6 73 Candida cotton swab to wipe oral mucosa E. faecalis 0.05 ml suspension 24 h, 3 h before Candida inoculation, 3 h, 24 h, 27 h after Candida inoculation Blank control Candida counts, Oral infection score, Histology
Fluconazole
Leao et al., 2018 [37] Wistar mice (immunosupp-ressed by intraperitoneal injection with dexamethasone (65 mg/kg)) Male 11–12 90 Candida cotton swab was left for 80 min under the tongue L. rhamnosus 100 μL suspension (10 9 cells/mL) 2 weeks before Candida inoculation; Probiotics intake when Candida inoculation Blank control Candida counts, Inflammatory infiltrate score, The cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and INF-γ)