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Table 3 Bias of measurements between different examiners and different methods

From: The accuracy and reliability of digital measurements of gingival recession versus conventional methods

  95% Lower Limit 95% Upper Limit Bias
Examiners
 A to B −0.912 1.023 0.055
 A to C −1.107 1.099 - 0.004
 A to D −1.559 0.934 −0.313
 B to C - 1.199 1.080 - 0.056
 B to D - 1.656 0.919 - 0.369
 C to D - 1.717 0.718 - 0.309
Methods
 CP to CC - 1.455 1.060 - 0.198
 CP to DP - 1.244 1.219 - 0.013
 CP to DC - 1.249 1.152 - 0.049
 CC to DP −1.012 1.382 0.185
 CC to DC −0.952 1.250 0.149
 DP to DC −0.652 0.580 −0.036
  1. A, B, C, and D: the four examiners in the study. CP, conventional method using periodontal probe; CC, conventional method of taking measurements on cast model using caliper; DP, digital measurements of intraoral scans; and DC, digital measurements of digitalized cast models