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Table 3 Tooth wear according to the studied variables

From: Tooth wear among five-year-old children in Jakarta, Indonesia

Variables N BEWE > 0
No. (prevalence)
p-value
Children examined 691 161 (23%)  
Sex
 Male 370 95 (26%) 0.113
 Female 321 66 (21%)  
Frequency of soft drink intake
 Less than once every 2 days 679 156 (23%) 0.129
 At least once every 2 days 12 5 (42%)  
Frequency of citrus drink intake
 Less than once every 2 days 590 119 (20%) < 0.001
 At least once every 2 days 101 42 (42%)  
Frequency of fruit juice intake
 Less than once every 2 days 527 105 (20%) < 0.001
 At least once every 2 days 164 56 (34%)  
Frequency of vitamin C supplement drink intake
 Less than once every 2 days 641 138 (22%) < 0.001
 At least once every 2 days 50 23 (46%)  
Frequency of chewing gum consumption
 Less than once every 2 days 34 12 (35%) 0.090
 At least once every 2 days 657 149 (23%)  
Methodology used for drinking
 Drinking with straw and swallowing immediately 582 131 (23%) 0.524
 Drinking from glass and swallowing immediately 98 27 (28%)  
 Swishing before swallowing 11 3 (27%)  
Frequency of daily toothbrushing
  ≥ 2 times 549 126 (23%) 0.670
  ≤ 1 time 142 35 (25%)  
Socioeconomic status
 Low 348 72 (21%) 0.102
 High 343 89 (26%)  
Father’s education level
 College or above 407 82 (20%) 0.064
 Secondary school 244 68 (28%)  
 Primary school or below 40 11 (28%)  
Mother’s education level
 College or above 370 78 (21%) 0.129
 Secondary school 270 66 (24%)  
 Primary school or below 51 17 (33%)  
Parent’s dental knowledge
 High 206 43 (21%) 0.374
 Moderate 435 103 (24%)  
 Low 50 15 (30%)  
Presence of digestive disorders
 No 605 140 (23%) 0.793
 Yes 86 21 (24%)  
Dental visit within the last 12 months
 Yes 221 48 (22%) 0.500
 No 470 113 (24%)  
Caries experience
 No 121 40 (33%) 0.007
 Yes 570 121 (21%)