Definitions of resistance and resilience in the current systematic scoping review on EG. In Panel a we define resistance, i.e. the ability to remain unchanged during perturbation (arrows in a and b): High resistance is defined as a low response during induction phase (a), while low resistance is defined as a high response during the induction phase (b). In Panel b we define resilience, i.e. the ability to recover to the initial sate after perturbation: High resilience is defined as fast and full recovery during resolution phase (c), while low resilience is defined as slow or incomplete recovery during the resolution phase (d).