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Table 1 The deviation of total error, longitudinal error, and angular error in the 5 drilling tests

From: The influence of dental experience on a dental implant navigation system

Grade VS CR R3 DI DC P-valuea Multiple comparisonb
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Total error (mm) 2.00 ± 1.24 1.92 ± 0.90 1.66 ± 0.89 2.40 ± 0.87 2.10 ± 0.85 0.054  
Longitudinal error (mm) 1.65 ± 0.98 1.24 ± 0.99 0.98 ± 0.53 0.92 ± 0.76 0.64 ± 0.46 < 0.0001 VS > DC
VS > DI
VS > R3
CR > DC
Angular error (degrees) 5.38 ± 2.45 5.12 ± 2.48 3.48 ± 1.76 5.53 ± 1.81 4.31 ± 2.13 0.0011 DI > R3
VS > R3
CR > R3
Elapsed time (secs per drill) 112 ± 13.13 136 ± 17.47 144 ± 5.29 170 ± 5.59 180 ± 4.49 0.0029  
  1. aOne-way ANOVA (P < .05)
  2. bTukey-Kramer HSD
  3. CR: Chief resident; DC: Dental clerk; DI: Dental intern; R3: Third year resident; VS: Visiting staff