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Table 2 Acculturation characteristics, benefits and barriers, and health-related knowledge of caregivers, overall and by pediatric patient age group

From: A survey of caregiver acculturation and acceptance of silver diamine fluoride treatment for childhood caries

Characteristics, Benefits and Barriers, and Knowledge of Caregivers Overall (n = 546) Patients < 6 years (n = 410) Patients ≥6 years (n = 136) P Value
Acculturation characteristics of caregivers
 Language caregiver usually speaks at home     0.095
  Only English / English more than native 255 (46.7) 186 (45.4) 69 (50.7)  
  Both equally 129 (23.6) 92 (22.4) 37 (27.2)
  Native more than English / only native 131 (24.0) 107 (26.1) 24 (17.6)
  Missing 31 (5.7) 25 (6.1) 6 (4.4)
 Language caregiver usually thinks in     0.389
  Only English / English more than native 281 (51.5) 205 (50.0) 76 (55.9)  
  Both equally 112 (20.5) 83 (20.2) 29 (21.3)
  Native more than English / only native 122 (22.3) 97 (23.7) 25 (18.4)
  Missing 31 (5.7) 25 (6.1) 6 (4.4)
 Language caregiver usually speaks with friends     0.004
  Only English / English more than native 270 (49.5) 195 (47.6) 75 (55.1)  
  Both equally 116 (21.2) 80 (19.5) 36 (26.5)
  Native more than English / only native 129 (23.6) 110 (26.8) 19 (14.0)
  Missing 31 (5.7) 25 (6.1) 6 (4.4)
 Caregiver born in the United States     0.359
  Yes 288 (52.7) 220 (53.7) 68 (50.0)  
  No 227 (41.6) 165 (40.2) 62 (45.6)
  Missing 31 (5.7) 25 (6.1) 6 (4.4)
 Years caregiver lived in the United States among those not born in the United States (n = 219) 14.4 ± 9.5 13.6 ± 8.8 16.4 ± 11.0 0.107
 Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) score (n = 515) 3.6 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 1.5 3.8 ± 1.3 0.150
Perceived benefits and barriers of caregivers
 Likelihood of choosing SDF treatment     0.001
  Very / somewhat unlikely 95 (17.4) 66 (16.1) 29 (21.3)  
  Not sure 94 (17.2) 59 (14.4) 35 (25.7)
  Somewhat / very likely 325 (59.5) 260 (63.4) 65 (47.8)
  Missing 32 (5.9) 25 (6.1) 7 (5.1)
 Concern regarding dark mark of SDF treatment     0.359
  Extremely / very concerned 129 (23.6) 92 (22.4) 37 (27.2)  
  Moderately / slightly concerned 256 (46.9) 191 (46.6) 65 (47.8)
  Not concerned 159 (29.1) 125 (30.5) 34 (25.0)
  Missing 2 (0.4) 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0)
 Comfort regarding SDF treatment     0.049
  Very / somewhat uncomfortable 99 (18.1) 69 (16.8) 30 (22.1)  
  Neutral 175 (32.1) 125 (30.5) 50 (36.8)
  Somewhat / very comfortable 271 (49.6) 216 (52.7) 55 (40.4)
  Missing 1 (0.2) 0 1 (0.7)
Perceived health-related knowledge of caregivers
 Understanding of SDF treatment     0.014
  Knows nothing / not enough / not sure 161 (29.5) 107 (26.1) 54 (39.7)  
  Knows something 219 (40.1) 170 (41.5) 49 (36.0)
  Knows a lot 135 (24.7) 108 (26.3) 27 (19.9)
  Missing 31 (5.7) 25 (6.1) 6 (4.4)
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables are presented as n (%)
  2. P Values correspond to the testing of differences by age group of pediatric patients using the non-parametric Wilcox rank-sum test for continuous variables (which is robust to outliers and non-normal distributions) and the Fisher exact test for categorical variables, with missing values excluded