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Table 1 Multi-level Mixed-effect model estimates

From: Prevalence of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in a patient population at Harvard School of Dental Medicine

Fixed-effect ModelIntercept (grand mean) for whole sample
Random-effect ModelAllows variability between individuals, teeth, and sites
 SD IndividualsSD of each individual’s mean from the overall grand mean
 SD TeethSD of each tooth’s mean from its individual’s mean
 SD SitesSD of each observation (site) from its tooth’s mean