Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the cross-sectional studies included in this review (n = 14 studies)

From: Effect of smoking cessation on tooth loss: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Author (Country)Subjects characteristicsSmoking status assessmentOutcome assessmentMain findings
Albandar et al. 2010 (EUA)705 patients (age range of 21 to 91 years; mean 56.9 ± 16.4 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal StudyStructured interview
Infrequent / non-smokers: quit smoking cigarettes after smoking less than 10 years / no history of smoking
Current cigarettes smokers: smoke daily
Former heavy smokers: smoked cigarettes daily for 10+ years and quit
Clinical examination.
Outcome: Number of missing teeth
Mean (S.E.) number of missing teeth:
Non-smokers (n =  475): 2.8 (0.28)
Current smokers (n = 36): 5.1 (0.78)
Former heavy smokers (n = 167): 3.9 (0.43)
Arora et al. 2010 (Australia)99,663 (45 years and older) participants from the 45 and Older Study who responded the question about tooth lossSelf-reported questionnaire
Never smokers: not defined by the authors
Current smokers: heavy smokers (> 20 cigarettes per day) and those who smoke < 20 cigarettes per day.
Former smokers: subjects were divided in categories of years since smoking cessation (<  10, 10–19, 20–29, 30 or more)
Self-reported questionnaire.
Outcome: Number (%) of edentulous subjects
Number (%) of edentulous subjects
Never smokers (n = 56,203): 4898 (8.7%)
Current smokers (n = 7230): 939 (13%)
Former smokers (n = 32,368): 3706 (11,4%)
Cunningham et al. 2016 (EUA)439,637 respondents (18 to 98 years) from the 2021 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance SystemTelephone interview
Never smokers: smoked < 100 cigarettes during their lifetime
Current cigarette smokers: smoked > 100 cigarettes during their life-time and reported smoking “every day” or “some days” at the time of the interview.
Former smokes: reported ever smoking > 100 cigarettes but reported smoking “not at all” at the interview.
Telephone interview
Question: “How many of your permanent teeth have been removed because of tooth decay or gum disease?”
Outcome: number of teeth lost (in categories: none; 1 to 5; >  6 but not all; all)
Number (%) of edentulous subjects (all teeth lost)
Never smokers (n = 239,920): 67,418 (28.1%)
Current smokers (n = 72,210): 23,107 (32.0%)
Former smokers (n = 127,507): 50,875 (39.9%)
Hanioka et al. 2007 (Japan)3999 (> 40 years) from Survey of Dental Disease (SDD) and National Nutrition Survey (NSS)Dietitian-applied questionnaire
Non-smoker: never smoked or smoked no more than 100 cigarettes
Current smoker: smokes currently and has smoked more than 100 cigarettes
Former smoker: has previously smoked more than 100, but does not currently smoke
Clinical examination
Outcome: number of subjects with less than 19 teeth
Number (%) of subjects having less than 19 teeth
Non-smoker (n = 2502): 928 (37.1%)
Current smoker (n = 922): 344 (37.3%)
Former smoker (n = 575): 219 (38.1%)
Mai et al. 2013 (EUA)1106 postmenopausal (mean 66.9 ± 7.1 years) women enrolled in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss (OsteoPerio) StudySelf-administered questionnaire
Never smokers: not defined by the authors
Current smokers: light smokers (first tertile,< eight pack-years); Moderate smokers (second tertile, eight to 25 pack-years); Heavy smokers (third tertile, ≥ 26 pack-years).
Former smokers: not defined by the authors
Clinical examination
Outcome: number of subjects with any tooth loss
Number (%) of subjects with any tooth loss
Never smokers (n = 593): 476 (80,2%)
Current smokers (n = 40): 32 (80%)
Former smokers (n = 473): 392 (82,8%)
Mundt et al. 2007 (Germany)4310 individuals
(20 to 79 years) from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0)
Interview
Always nonsmoker: not defined by the authors
Current smoker: maximum quantity of cigarettes smoked per day over a year was classified as < 10 cigarettes/ day, 10 to 19 cigarettes/day, and > 20 cigarettes/day.
Former smoker: not defined by the authors
Clinical examination
Outcome: few teeth in relation to their age. The 15% of participants with
the highest number of missing teeth in each 5-year age group were considered as cases.
Percentage of the case group (n = 355):
Never smokers: 19.7%
Current smokers (n = 196):
< 10: 11.3%
10–19: 22.3%
> 20: 21.7%
Former smokers (n = 89):
< 10 (n = 34): 9.6%
10–19 (n = 20): 5.6%
> 20 (n = 35): 9.9%
Mussachio et al. 2007 (Italy)3054 subjects > 65 years (mean age: 76.8 ± 8.7) from Porgetoo Veneto Anziani (Pro.V.A.) StudyHome interview
Never smoker: not defined by the authors
Current smoker: not defined by the authors
Former smoker: not defined by the authors
Former and current were subdivided by number of cigarettes/day in light, mild, and heavy smokers (< 10; 10–20; >  20 cigarettes/day)
Clinical examination
Outcome: Prevalence of edentulism and number of remaining teeth, applied as dichotomous (none versus at least 1) or categorical (0; 1–7; 8–19; >  20).
Number (%) of edentulous subjects
Never (n = 1900): 1144 (60.2%)
Current (n = 260): 24 (9.4%)
Former (n = 895): 273 (30.5%)
Ojima et al. 2007 (Japan)1314 (20 to 39 years) subjects from the Nation Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD)Questionnaire (interview)
Nonsmoker: experimental smoker or has never smoked cigarettes
Current smoker: currently smokes cigarettes daily or occasionally
Former smoker: has smoked cigarettes at some point in life, but currently does not smoke.
Clinical examination
Outcome: Prevalence of participants with1+ tooth loss
Number (%) of subjects with 1+ tooth loss
Overall
Nonsmoker (n = 847): 236 (27.9%)
Current smoker (n = 389): 158 (40.6%)
Former smoker (n = 78): 18 (23.1%)
Randolph et al. 2001 (EUA)3050 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans age 65 to 99 from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemioligical Study of the Eldery survey.Interview
Nonsmokers: never smoked or reported having smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime
Current smokers: currently smoking
Former smokers: had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime but were not currently smoking
Questionnaire (self-reported)
Question “How many of your own teeth do you still have?”
Categories: all, about three-quarters, about half, about one-quarter, none
Outcome: Prevalence of tooth loss.
Number (%) of edentulous subjects (0 teeth)
Nonsmoker (n = 1707): 397 (23,2%)
Current smoker (n = 369): 131 (35,5%%)
Former smoker (n = 826): 267 (32,3%)
Number (%) of subjects with tooth loss (1+)
Nonsmokers (n = 1707): 1311 (76,8%)
Current (n = 369): 240 (65%)
Former (n = 868): 598 (68,9%)
Simila et al. 2016 (Filand)5540 subjects from Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1996. The study used data from the 46-year follow-up (carried out in 2012–2014).Mailed questionnaire
Never smokers: had smoked daily for less than one year in their lifetime and were not smokers at the time of the follow-up
Current smokers: reported smoking at least occasionally.
Former smokers: had smoked daily
for at least one year, but had quit smoking and were not smokers at the time of the study
Self-reported Questionnaire
Number (%) of subjects in the following categories of number of teeth: 0–27 or 28–32
Number (%) of subjects in each category of number of teeth:
Never smoker (n = 3062)
0–27: 933 (35%)
28–32: 1763 (65%)
Current smoker (n = 1757)
0–27: 742 (49%)
28–32: 758 (51%)
Former smoker (n = 1525)
0–27: 559 (42%)
28–32: 785 (58%)
Torrungruang et al. 2012 (Thailand)1463 individuals (50–73 years old) from the cross-sectional data of senior employess and retired personnel of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand.Self-reported questionnaire
Non-smokers: had never smoked or had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime.
Current smokers: currently smoked at the time of examination (smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime)
Former smokers: had quit smoking prior to the time of examination (smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime)
Clinical examination
Outcome: number of remaining teeth
Number of remaining teeth:
Non-smoker (n = 477)
Maxillary anterior teeth: 2.8 ± 0.03
Maxillary posterior teeth: 3.2 ± 0.05
Mandibular anterior teeth: 2.9 ± 0.02
Mandibular posterior teeth: 2.9 ± 0.05
Current smoker (n = 272)
Maxillary anterior teeth: 2.6 ± 0.05
Maxillary posterior teeth: 2.9 ± 0.07
Mandibular anterior teeth: 2.8 ± 0.03
Mandibular posterior teeth: 2.8 ± 0.07
Former smoker (n = 714)
Maxillary anterior teeth: 2.7 ± 0.03
Maxillary posterior teeth: 2.9 ± 0.04
Mandibular anterior teeth: 2.9 ± 0.02
Mandibular posterior teeth: 2.8 ± 0.04
Yanagisawa et al. 2009 (Japan)547 men (55–75 years) from JPHC Study Cohort ISelf-reported questionnaire administered in 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005
Never smokers: answered “Not smoking” in both 1990 and 2005 and answered “Not smoking” in 1995 and 2000 or had a missing value in 1995 and 2000.
Current smokers: answered “Currently smoking” in 2005, regardless of answers in 1990, 1995 and 2000.
Former smokers: answered “Quit smoking” in 2005 or those who answered “Not smoking” in 2005 but “Currently smoking” or “Quit smoking” in 1990.
clinical examination
Outcome: having more than 8 missing teeth, mean number of teeth present
% of subjects having more than 8 missing teeth
Never smokers (n = 161): 28.6% (n = 46)
Current smokers (n = 135): 39.3% (n = 53)
Former smokers (n = 251): 39,0% (n = 98)
Mean number of teeth present (SE):
Never smokers: 22.1 (0.6)
Current smokers: 19.0 (0.7)
Former smokers: 18.8 (0.5)
Yanagisawa et al. 2010 (Japan)1088 men (40–75 years of age) resident in Yokote city, Akita prefectureSelf-reported questionnaire
Never smoker: not defined by the authors
Current smokers: not defined by the authors
Former smokers: not defined by the authors
The number of cigarettes per day was calculated for current smokers and former smokers, and the smoking-cessation years were calculated for former smokers
clinical examination
Outcome: having more than 8 missing teeth, mean number of teeth present
% of subjects having more than 8 missing teeth:
Never smoked (n = 350): 29.4% (n = 87)
Current smokers (n = 317): 26.2% (n = 83)
Former smokers (n = 421): 26.8% (n = 113)
Mean number of teeth present (SE):
Never smoked: 22.0 (0.5)
Current smokers: 21.4 (0.5)
Former smokers: 21.4 (0.4)
Yoshida et al. 2001 (Japan)2015 employees (males, 20–59 years) of a large petroleum chemical plant located in Osaka PrefectureSelf-reported questionnaire
Non-smoking: not defined by the authors
Quit-smoking: not defined by the authors
Smoking: not defined by the authors
Tooth loss: clinical examinationOR (95% CI) for tooth loss
Non-smoking: 1 (reference)
Quit-smoking: 1.27 (0.89–1.81)
Smoking: 1.54 (1.20–1.96)
* The number of subjects in each group was not informed
  1. SD: standard deviation; CI: confidence interval; OR: odds ratio; SE: standart error