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Table 2 Characteristics of the longitudinal studies included in this review (n = 07 studies)

From: Effect of smoking cessation on tooth loss: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Author/ Country/ Follow-upFollow-upSubjectsAssessment of smoking statusAssessment of the outcomeMain findings
Dietrich et al. 2007
(EUA)
16 years43,112 health men professionals with 40 to 75 years from Heatlth Professionals Follow-up StudySelf-reported questionnaire (mailed questionnaire every 2 years)
Never smokers: < 20 packs of cigarettes in their lives.
Ever smokers: average number of cigarettes per day.
Former smokers: years since cessation (time since cessation (<  1, 1–2, 3–5, 6–9, > 10)
Self-reported questionnaire.
Subjects reported baseline number of teeth and incident tooth loss in two-year intervals thereafter.
Outcome: incident tooth loss
Hazard Ratio (CI 95%) for incidence of first tooth loss:
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Current (+45cig/d): 3.0 (2.4–3.9)
Former (10+ yrs): 1.2 (1.2–1.3)
Dietrich et al. 2015 (Germany)8.6 years (mean)21,810 participants from EPIC-Postdam Study with at least 1 natural tooth at baselineSelf-reported questionnaire
Never smokers
Current smokers: (< 15 and ≥ 15 cig/day)
Former smokers: (< 10, 10 to < 20, ≥20 years since cessation)
Self-reported questionnaire.
In the last follow-up, patients reported number of natural teeth and the number of teeth lost since study baseline.
Outcome: incident tooth loss
Odds ratio (CI 95%) for incidence of tooth loss:
Males <50y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 0.91 (0.66–1.27)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 3.64 (3.00–4.42)
Males 50-59y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 1.11 (0.94–1.32)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 2.82 (2.36–3.37)
Males 60-70y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 1.18 (0.98–1.44)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 2.47 (1.85–3.30)
Females <50y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 0.92 (0.70–1.20)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 2.47 (2.11–2.89)
Females 50-59y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 1.20 (0.99–1.44)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 2.06 (1.60–2.66)
Females 60-70y
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker ≥20 years: 0.98 (0.78–1.23)
Current smokers ≥15 cig/day: 1.79 (1.21–2.63)
Jansson & Lavstedt 2002 (Sweden)20 years507 subjects from the population of the Country of Stockholm was perfomerd in 1970 (Lavstedt & Eklund 1975)Interview
Life-time smoking exposure expressed as number of years with a mean consumption of 20 cigarettes per day.
Never smokers: did not smoke in 1970 and 1990
Smokers: smoked in 1970 and 1990
Former smokers: stopped smoking between 1970 and 1990
Clinical examination
Outcome: Number of teeth lost between 1970 and 1990
Number (SD) of tooth lost:
Never smokers (n = 220): 2.2 (3.0)
Smokers (n = 163): 3.7 (4.8)
Former smokers (n = 124): 3.2 (4.0)
Klein et al. 2004 (EUA)10 years2764 subjects (53–96 yrs. of age) from Beaver Dam, WI (1998-2000)Examiner-administered interview
Never smokers: persons who smoked 100 or fewer cigarettes in their lifetime.
Current smokers
Former smokers
Examiner-administered
interview
Outcome: Tooth loss (missing some or all teeth)
Odds ratio (CI 95%) for missing some or all teeth:
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Current: 4.04 (2.52–6.49)
Former: 1.57 (1.25–1.98)
Krall et al. 1997 (EUA) (females)*6 ± 2 yrs.
(mean)
584 medically healthy post-menopausal females, screened for nutritional intervention trials at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University (Dawson-Hughes et al., 1990).Annually applied questionnaire
Non-smokers (never or former): did not use cigarettes at any time subsequent to baseline.
Continuous smokers: used cigarettes at baseline and at each subsequent examination.
Quitters: smoked cigarettes at baseline but reported no cigarette or other tobacco product use at follow-up examinations
Clinical examination and questionnaire.
Teeth counted by a nurse practitioner at baseline.
Number of teeth lost since baseline and year in which they were lost were assessed by questionnaire at the end of the study.
Outcome: Risk of tooth loss; Tooth loss rate/10 yrs
Relative Risk (CI 95%) of tooth loss:
Non-smokers (n = 225): 1.0 (ref)
Continuous smokers (n = 09): 3.4 (2.1–5.7)
Quitters (n = 14): 0.7 (0.3–1.8)
Tooth loss rate/10 years
Non-smokers (n = 225): 0.8
Continuous smokers (n = 09): 2.73
Quitters (n = 14): 0.55
Krall et al. 2006 (EUA)35 yrs. (maximum follow-up)789 men who participated in the Veterans Administration Dental Longitudinal Study from 1968 to 2004.Interviewer-administered questionnaire
Never smokers: men who had never smoked tobacco (cigarettes, pipes, or cigars) either before baseline or during the study
Former smokers: men who smoked cigarettes before baseline but not during follow-up
Continuous smokers: men who smoked cigarettes before baseline and continued to smoke cigarettes at each evaluation
Quitters: men who smoked cigarettes before baseline and quit smoking and abstained from any type of tobacco product
Clinical examination every 3 years
Outcome: Tooth loss per person, teeth lost per year per 1000 teeth at risk
No of teeth lost per person
Never smokers (n = 264): 1.0 (0.3)
Former smokers (n = 283): 1.0 (0.4)
Continuous smokers (n = 113): 2.0 (0.4)
Quitters (n = 129): 3.0 (1.8)
No of teeth lost per year per 100 teeth at risk:
Never smokers (n = 264): 2 (0.7)
Former smokers (n = 283): 3 (0.11)
Continuous smokers (n = 113): 8 (0.17)
Quitters (n = 129): 7 (2.2)
Okamoto et al. 2006 (Japan)4 years1332 (30–59 years) male JapaneseSelf-reported questionnaire
Non-smokers: those did not smoke at either check-up.
Smokers: smoked at both the baseline and the second check-up. Subdivided into 3 groups based on the number of cigarettes they smoked per day (1–19, 20, or > 21).
Former smokers: stopped smoking at baseline and had not resumed by the second check-up.
Clinical examination Seven calibrated examiners did the baseline clinical examination and a second examination four years later.
Outcome: Teeth lost during 4 yrs
Odds ratio (CI 95%) for tooth loss during 4 years:
Age group 30–39 years:
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker: 0.36 (0.04–3.28)
Current smokers 1–20 cig/day: 3.30 (1.09–10.0)
Current smokers > 21 cig/day: 2.47 (0.72–8.53)
Age group 40–49 years:
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker: 1.14 (0.59–2.21)
Current smokers 1–20 cig/day: 1.48 (0.76–2.91)
Current smokers > 21 cig/day: 2.03 (1.00–4.10)
Age group 50–59 years:
Never: 1.0 (reference)
Former smoker: 1.07 (0.44–2.61)
Current smokers 1–20 cig/day: 1.34 (0.49–3.68)
Current smokers > 21 cig/day: 1.67 (0.56–4.99)
  1. cig/d: cigarette per day; SD: Standard Deviation
  2. * just the women group was considered. Men group was analyzed in the Krall et al. 2006 study