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Table 1 Systematic reviews on the application of virual reality and augmented reality in oral and maxillofacial surgery

From: The application of virtual reality and augmented reality in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

AuthorsYearScopeMain findingsConclusionRecommendations
Joda et al [7]2019Augmented and virtual reality in dental medicineThe technologies were mainly used for educational trainingVirtual reality is a promising tool that could deliver predictable outcomesEstablishing technological standards and developing approved applications are essential
Maliha et al. [8]2018Haptic, physical and web-based simulators in maxillary surgeryMost of the studies “10” were on virtual reality haptic based simulators.no studies with high level of evidenceStudies on the effectiveness of the surgical simulators with high level of evidence are needed.
Huang Y et al [13]2018Application of virtual and augmented reality in dentistryComputerized dental simulators provide the best training system for dental studentsThe methods are essential tools in the future of dental OSCEThe methods should be applied more extensively in medical treatment
Chen X, Hu J [9]2018Virtual reality based haptic simulation in oral surgeryVirtual and tactile fusion of virtual environment is effective for surgical simulationHaptic technology provides excellent facility to improve surgical skillsControlled studies are needed
Azarmehr et al2017Treatments and outcomes of surgical navigationThe accuracy of surgical navigation was within 1–2 mmThe method is useful addition to the surgical toolkitTraining is required due to the steep learning curve
Lin H, Lo J [10]2015Surgical simulation and intraoperative navigation in orthognathic surgeryThe method provides precise translation of the surgical planNavigation facilitates intraoperative manipulation of the osteotomy segmentsRandomised controlled trials are essential
Jayaratne et al [12]2010Computer assisted oral & maxillofacial surgeryMost focused on CBCT, stereophotogrammetry and surgical planning softwareAccurate diagnosis can be achieved and can be executed via surgical navigationTechnology transfer from research to clinical care