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Table 2 Oral health parameters, orthodontic treatment, and oral hygiene habits in the study population

From: Oral health of children and adolescents with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) living in residential care in rural Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

 Children and adolescents with ADHD (study group)
(n = 34)
Children and adolescents without ADHD (control group)
(n = 45)
P-value
DMFS3.91 ± 9.171.98 ± 2.710.722
DMFT1.91 ± 3.021.44 ± 1.790.983
API51.9 ± 16.4%52.1 ± 16.7%0.980
Gingivitis3 (8.8%)7 (15.6%)0.502
Bruxism19 (55.9%)25 (55.6%)1.000
Orthodontic treatment:
 • ongoing2 (5.9%)8 (17.8%) 
 • needed4 (11.8%)2 (4.4%)0.182
 • not needed28 (82.3%)35 (77.8%) 
Tooth brushing
 • ≥ 2x/day30 (88.2%)40 (88.9%) 
 • 1x, only in the morning1 (2.9%)3 (6.7%)0.399
 • 1x, only in the evening3 (8.8%)1 (2.2%) 
 • none0 (0%)1 (2.2%) 
Fluoride-containing toothpaste used
 • 500 ppm1 (2.9%)1 (2.2%) 
 • 1000–1490 ppm32 (94.2%)42 (93.3%)0.971
 • no answer1 (2.9%)2 (4.4%) 
Knowledge of fluoride gel
 • yes18 (52.9%)25 (55.6%)0.824
 • no16 (47.1%)20 (44.4%) 
Usage of fluoride gel
 • yes3 (8.8%)8 (17.8%)0.335
 • no31 (91.2%)37 (82.2%)